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Research and IPM

California PestCast: Research Projects

PestCast supported disease and other pest model research and validation projects that could benefit from establishment of a weather network.

By January 1998, the PestCast Steering Committee had approved support for 15 projects on 11 crops.

Apples
Carrots
Grapes
Lettuce
Pears
Potatoes
Roses
Stone fruits
Strawberries
Tomatoes
Walnuts

Project: Validation of Fire Blight Models on San Joaquin Valley Apples

Project Leaders and Cooperators
Brent Holtz, UC Cooperative Extension, Madera County
Beth Teviotdale, Plant Pathology, UC Davis (at Kearney Agricultural Center)

Description
Crop/pest system:
Apple/fire blight

This project will compare models developed in other regions of California and the U.S. for performance in San Joaquin Valley. Modifications to the best model will be made as needed.

PestCast Contribution
Two weather stations in the Madera-Fresno area. The Apple Commission is also supporting this work.

Project: Development of Alternaria Leaf Blight of Carrot Disease Forecasting Model

Project Leaders and Cooperators
J. Nunez, UC Cooperative Extension, Kern County
M. Davis, Department of Plant Pathology, UC Davis

Description
Crop/pest system: Carrot/Alternaria leaf blight

The project's goal is to validate and refine as necessary a model based on observed weather to forecast leaf blight occurrence and the optimum time to apply fungicides for disease control. Work is being done in Kern County, and the model being validated was developed specifically for carrots grown in the San Joaquin Valley.

PestCast Contribution
One weather station.

Project: Augmenting Weathernet, an Automated Weather Information Network for San Joaquin County, and Implementing Areawide Use

Project Leaders and Cooperators
C. Ohmart, Lodi-Woodbridge Winegrape Commission
J. Grant, UC Cooperative Extension, San Joaquin County
P. Verdegaal, UC Cooperative Extension, San Joaquin County
K. Kautz, Kautz Family Farms

Description
Crop/pest system: Grapes/powdery mildew, grape leafhopper, and omnivorous leafroller

The project will collect data to validate the powdery mildew model, demonstrate the utility of that model to growers and PCAs, and promote implementation of grape leafhopper and omnivorous leafroller degree-day models. The three PestCast stations will augment the WEATHERNET network in San Joaquin County, bringing the number of stations to 15.

PestCast Contribution
Three weather stations in San Joaquin and Southern Sacramento counties.

Project: Central San Joaquin Valley Grape Production Region

Project Leaders and Cooperators
J. Kretsch, Sun-Maid Growers of California
M. Costello, UC Cooperative Extension, Fresno County
G. Leavitt, UC Cooperative Extension, Madera County
R. Coviello, UC Cooperative Extension, Fresno County
B. Peacock, UC Cooperative Extension, Tulare County
B. Beede, UC Cooperative Extension, Kings County
M. Mayse, California State University, Fresno
D. Weinman, California Table Grape Commission

Description
Crop/pest system: Raisin, table, and wine grapes/powdery mildew, omnivorous leafroller

This project will work on validation of the UC Davis grape powdery mildew model in raisin and table grapes in the central San Joaquin Valley. This work will documents differences or similarities in model performance between raisin and wine grapes. Verification of a model for omnivorous leafroller will also be conducted.

The new stations will form a new research network of six stations.

PestCast Contribution
Six weather stations, one base station.

Project: Validation of Botrytis cinerea, Powdery Mildew, and Omnivorous Leafroller Models in Table Grapes

Project Leaders and Cooperators
Jenny Broome, Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program, UC DANR (at Davis)
Michael Costello, UC Cooperative Extension, Fresno County

Description
Crop/pest system:
Table grapes/Botrytis bunch rot, powdery mildew, omnivorous leafroller

This project will validate Broome's Botrytis bunch rot model in table grapes and a degree-day model for OLR. It will also evaluate the role of powdery mildew fruiting bodies versus bud infections in the start of powdery mildew epidemics on table grapes and update mildew model with new information; and compare the results from the Gubler-Thomas model with Sall-Snyder model.

PestCast Contribution
Three stations will be added in Fresno County, to become part of the Fresno County PestCast weather network.

Project: Updating the Lake County Weather Network to Accommodate Pest Management Research

See Pear.

Project: Implementation of Downy Mildew Weather Forecasting System on Iceberg Lettuce.

Project Leaders and Cooperators
E. A. Kurtz, Iceberg Lettuce Advisory Board, Salinas
V. E. Rubatzky, Department of Vegetable Crops, UC Davis
C. S. Thomas, Adcon Telemetry, Santa Rosa
S. Koike, UC Cooperative Extension, Monterey County
F. Laemmlen, UC Cooperative Extension, Santa Barbara County, Santa Maria
A. Fox and J. Boyd, Fox Weather, Oxnard

Description
Crop/pest system: Iceberg lettuce/downy mildew

The purpose of the project is to refine the leaf wetness and disease risk assessment parameters, and the impact on grower production practices, associated with use of a downy mildew model on iceberg lettuce. As the model is validated and refined, implementation efforts will be undertaken. The work is being carried out in the Salinas and Santa Maria areas, and funded by several agencies, and growers, with most weather stations contributed by chemical companies.

The entire network consists of thirteen stations in the two research areas.

PestCast Contribution
Two weather stations, maintenance of 13 stations.

Project: Validation and Modification of a Pear Scab Ascospore Model in the Sacramento Delta Region

Project Leaders and Cooperators
Doug Gubler, Plant Pathology, UC Davis
Chuck Ingels, UC Cooperative Extension, Sacramento County

Description
Crop/pest system:
Pears/scab

This project will test the Spotts-Cervantes pear scab ascospore model, developed in the Pacific Northwest, in the Sacramento Delta pear-growing region.

PestCast Contribution
One weather station, to be added to the Sacramento and San Joaquin county weather network.

Project: Onsite Weather Monitoring System for Modeling of Pear Pests and Diseases

Project Leaders and Cooperators
R. Elkins, UC Cooperative Extension, Lake County
G. T. McGourty, UC Cooperative Extension, Mendocino County
D. Gubler, Plant Pathology, UC Davis
S. Lindow, Plant Pathology, UC Berkeley
L. Varela, UC IPM and UC Cooperative Extension, Sonoma County
D. Gordon, Ag-Unlimited, Inc., Ukiah
P. Chevalier, United Ag Products, Ukiah

Description
Crop/pest systems: Pears/scab, codling moth, obliquebanded leafroller, fire blight

The primary focus of the project is to refine and incorporate a pear scab ascospore maturation model into a disease risk index, using onsite weather stations. Use of the model is expected to increase the effectiveness of the presently used Mills Tables index to predict infection periods, by quantifying the availability of primary inoculum during the growing season. The work will use the Mills Tables, along with spore trapping and prediction using a new model developed by Spotts and Cervantes in Oregon for ascospore maturation.

Additionally, codling moth and obliquebanded leafroller degree-day models will be validated, and the Cougar Blight fire blight model (developed by Tim Smith at Washington State University) will be evaluated for applicability to California.

PestCast Contribution
Three weather stations, two repeaters, analysis computer.

Project: Updating the Lake County Weather Network to Accommodate Pest Management Research

Project Leaders and Cooperators
R. Elkins, UC Cooperative Extension, Lake County
M. Lockhart, Lake County Department of Agriculture
R. Reynolds, Lake County Air Quality Management District

Description
Crop/pest systems: European pears/pear scab, fireblight, codling moth, obliquebanded leafroller; Winegrapes/powdery mildew; English walnuts/codling moth, walnut blight

The project aims to validate disease and insect models on pears, wine grapes, and walnuts in Lake County, then take steps to foster implementation by growers and PCAs. The Lake County Air Quality Management District and Lake County Fruit Frost Trust Fund will also contribute.

The new stations will be a part of a network of approximately 8 stations.

PestCast Contribution:
Three weather stations, one base station.

Project: Testing of Potato Late Blight Models in the Tulelake Region

Project Leaders and Cooperators
Ariena vanBruggen, Plant Pathology, UC Davis
Harry Carlson, DANR, Tulelake Research and Extension Center

Description
Crop/pest system:
Potatoes/late blight

The project will test several existing late blight models developed in Europe to determine which are most appropriate to the Tulelake production region, and revise the best model as needed.

PestCast Contribution
Specialized sensors for one weather station in Tulelake area and support for collaboration with European researchers. The Potato Board is also supporting this work.

Project: Development of a Predictive Model for Downy Mildew on Field-Grown Roses.

Project Leaders and Cooperators
Michael Davis, Plant Pathology, UC Davis
Brenna Aegerter, Plant Pathology, UC Davis
Joe Nunez, UC Cooperative Extension, Kern County

Description
Crop/pest system:
Rose/downy mildew

This project supports development of a predictive model for downy mildew on roses by adapting an existing model for downy mildew on hops.

PestCast Contribution
Raingages to add to weather stations already in use in Kern County, and some field labor support.

Project: Validation of Brown Rot Predictions Based on Latent Infections in Prunes, Peaches, Nectarines, and Plums, and Development of Weather Relationships

Project Leaders and Cooperators
Themis Michailides, Plant Pathology, UC Davis (at Kearney Agricultural Center)
Brent Holtz, UC Cooperative Extension, Madera County
Chuan Kong, Plant Pathology, UC Davis (at Kearney Agricultural Center)

Description
Crop/pest system:
Prunes, peaches, nectarines, plums/brown rot

This project will validate prior results of studies to predict brown rot based on latent infections in prunes, peaches, nectarines, and plums, and model the relationship between weather, apothecial production, sporulation of the fungus from mummies left in trees, inoculum concentration in air, and blossom blight, latent infestations of green fruit, and brown rot of mature fruit at harvest and postharvest.

PestCast Contribution
Two weather stations and two spore traps, to be placed in Madera and Fresno counties. Chuong Kong is funded by other grants to conduct this work.

Project: Validation of Gray Mold Models on Strawberries Grown on the Central Coast

Description
Crop/pest system:
Strawberries/gray mold (Botrytis cinerea)

This project will validate the Broome Botrytis bunch rot model, originally developed for grapes, for use in California strawberries. It will also compare results of several gray mold models developed in eastern U.S. with results from the grape bunch rot model.

PestCast Contribution
Three weather stations: 2 in Oxnard, 1 in Santa Maria will be added for use with one station already installed in Watsonville area.

Project: Processing Tomato Disease Forecasting: A Private & Public Initiative in Processing Tomatoes

Project Leaders and Cooperators
C. Rivara, California Tomato Research Institute, Inc., Escalon
R. M. Davis, Plant Pathology, UC Davis
J. Welty, Processed Tomato Foundation and California Tomato Growers Association
G. Miyao, UC Cooperative Extension, Yolo County
B. Mullen, UC Cooperative Extension, San Joaquin County
H. Bolkan, D. Larsen, R. Curtis, Campbell Soup Co.

Description
Crop/pest system: Processing tomatoes/blackmold, powdery mildew, and late blight

The goal of the project is to validate and refine the TomCAST model (as adapted by Campbell Soup Co.) for timing fungicide applications to control blackmold; validate and implement a UC Cooperative Extension powdery mildew model that forecasts outbreaks based on temperature, relative humidity, and duration of leaf wetness; and to adapt the TomCAST model for timing fungicide applications to control late blight.

Initiated and managed by the processing tomato industry and made possible by funds from several groups, a regional weather reporting network has been developed for the southern Sacramento Valley. This network of remote controlled weather stations is available during the growing season and is being used for model validation and to assist PCAs in forecasting blackmold treatments with improved accuracy.

The network consists of 11 stations in Yolo, Sacramento, San Joaquin, and Sutter counties.

PestCast Contribution
Two weather stations, one base station, cellular phone service for eight stations.

Project: Weather Station Network for Validation and Implementation of Tomato Disease Forecast Models

Project Leaders and Cooperators
K. Brittan, UC Cooperative Extension, Sacramento County
M. Cahn, UC Cooperative Extension, Sutter-Yuba counties

Description
Crop/pest system: Processing tomatoes/blackmold, powdery mildew, and late blight

The goal of the project is to validate and refine the TomCAST model (as adapted by Campbell Soup Co.) for timing fungicide applications to control blackmold; validate and implement a UC Cooperative Extension powdery mildew model that forecasts outbreaks based on temperature, relative humidity, and duration of leaf wetness; and to adapt the TomCAST model for timing fungicide applications to control late blight.

Eight stations in Sacramento and Sutter counties.

PestCast Contribution
Three weather stations.

Project: Updating the Lake County Weather Network to Accommodate Pest Management Research

See Pear.

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