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Research and IPM

Almond Production in California: A Study of Pest Management Practices, Issues, and Concerns

Part 3: Specific pest management practices for weed, disease, and nematode problems

Results presented in this section are for those growers with more than 20 acres of almonds who received Version B of the questionnaire (n=152). Growers were asked to base their responses on the bearing almond acres they had within the last almond crop year, postharvest season through harvest (November 1998-October 1999).

Q10. For each of the weed or disease pest listed in the table below, indicate whether the pest was a problem within the last almond crop year; and if it was, how satisfied were you with the control measures taken: (1) very satisfied, (2) somewhat satisfied, (3) not satisfied, or (0) no control measures were taken.

In this question, growers were instructed to think about “pest problem” to mean if no control measures were taken, they believe the pest would have resulted in economic damage in their almonds.

If growers were unsure what weed or disease pests they had, they were instructed to mark response "Don't Know."

Weeds and Diseases Was the pest a problem within the last crop year?
Percent

If YES, how satisfied were you with the control measures taken?
(n=134 to 143)

Don't
Know
No Yes No Control
Measures
Taken
Very
Satisfied
Somewhat
Satisfied
Not
Satisfied
A. Summer annual grasses 3 24 73 1 59 35 5
B. Puncturevine 4 51 45 2 63 31 5
C. Common purslane 16 32 52 4 41 49 5
D. Cheeseweed (common mallow) 14 27 59 2 45 49 4
E. Hairy fleabane (flax-leaved fleabane) 35 39 26 9 17 38 36
F. Brown rot 1 32 67 4 63 28 4
G. Shot hole 1 32 67 5 68 23 3
H. Scab 11 52 37 2 63 27 8
I. Anthracnose 13 46 40 0 36 50 13
J. Rust 16 58 26 6 58 31 6
K. Leaf blight 18 62 19 4 40 52 4
L. Alternaria 30 57 12 19 13 62 6
M. Phytophthora rots and cankers 12 45 42 23 14 37 25
N. Ceratocystis canker 29 50 21 34 6 34 25
O.

Other weed or disease

16 69 15 0 18 45 36

Q11. For each practice that involves the use of herbicides in almonds listed in each row of the table below, please indicate if you or someone on your farm used the practice within the last almond crop year, postharvest season through harvest (November 1998-October 1999).

If growers were unsure which specific practices were used, they were instructed to mark response as "Don’t Know."

Weed Management Practices Involving the Use of Herbicides Was the practice used within the last crop year?
Percent
(n=133 to 149)
Don't
know
No Yes
A. Select herbicide based on weed species present 2 10 88
B. Use degree days to schedule herbicide applications 7 80 13
C. Use soil sampling to monitor weed seed abundance and diversity 1 96 3
D. Monitor weeds in untreated areas to detect weed abundance and diversity 1 71 28
E. Rotate herbicides to prevent herbicide resistance 1 35 63
F. Manage orchard middles with cover crop 1 63 36
G. Mow orchard middles 1 5 95
H. Use chemical "mowing" in orchard middles (i.e., Roundup) 1 37 62
I. Disk orchard middles 1 85 14
J. Use delayed Surflan application for common purslane management in orchard middles 2 90 8
K. Use preemergent herbicide only in the tree row 1 26 72
L. If low weed population, treat tree row with postemergent herbicide only and use preemergent herbicide only on perimeter of orchard 6 65 28
M. Inject herbicide through microsprinkler 1 97 3
N. Use backflow prevention device when injecting agrichemicals through microsprinkler 3 72 25
O. Reduce rate of preemergent herbicide to at least 60% of maximum rate in the tree row 8 61 31
P. Delay preemergent herbicide application in the tree row until late winter to avoid off-site movement in runoff water 5 49 46
Q. Use spring and summer spot spray of the tree row 1 16 83
R. Use a sensor-controlled sprayer for emerged weeds 1 95 3

Q12. For each cultural and biological weed management practice listed below, indicate if you or someone on your farm used the practice within the last almond crop year, postharvest season through harvest (November 1998-October 1999).

If growers were unsure which specific practices were used, they were instructed to mark response as "Don’t Know."

Cultural and Biological Weed Management Practices Was the practice used within the last crop year?
Percent
(n=149 to 151)
Don't
Know
No Yes
A. Schedule mowing to minimize frost damage 0 16 84
B. Mow alternate rows at least one week apart 0 74 26
C. Schedule mowing to enhance competition from desirable plants 2 69 29
D. Manage orchard floor with mowing rather than chemical "mowing" to allow biological control of weeds 5 35 60
E. Monitor irrigation to apply less than 130% of crop demand 14 45 41
F. Use resident vegetation as a cover crop in orchard middles 1 30 69
G. Plant a cover crop to improve weed suppression 2 89 9
H. Use fabric mats for tree establishment 4 96 0
I. Use fabric mats under emitters 4 96 0

Q13. For each disease management practice listed below, indicate if you or someone on your farm used the practice within the last almond crop year, postharvest season through harvest (November 1998-October 1999).

If growers were unsure which specific practices were used, they were instructed to mark response as "Don’t Know."

Disease Management Practices Was the practice used within the last crop year?
Percent
(n=145 to 149)
Don't
know
No Yes
A. Measure soil moisture levels to schedule irrigation 0 54 46
B. Use evapotranspiration data (i.e., CIMIS weather data) to schedule irrigation 1 64 35
C. Use leaf tissue analysis to influence nitrogen application 1 11 89
D. Spray fungicide at bloom time 0 2 98
E. Spray fungicide in the spring 3 17 80
F. Spray fungicide multiple time throughout the year 3 51 46
G. Inspect leaves for symptoms of shot hole to determine need for post bloom sprays 0 5 95
H. Use model for timing shot hole sprays 13 63 23
I. Use long range weather forecast to predict need for fungicides 3 38 59
J. Redirect sprinklers from hitting scaffolds, trunks, and leaves 1 69 31
K. Had a disease diagnosis confirmed by lab tests 1 77 21
L. Train trees to increase air circulation 3 26 72
M. Prune out diseased branches and scaffolds in winter 1 4 95
N. Plant trees to keep the graft union above the soil surface 1 2 97

Q14. Have you or someone on your farm ever sampled for nematodes in your almonds?

  Percent
(n=149)
NO 73
YES 27

Q14a. In what year was your most recent sampling for nematodes?

Year of Most Recent Sampling Percent
(n=36)
Before 1990 8
1990-1995 11
1996-1997 20
1998 22
1999 39
2000 3

Q14b. What types of nematodes do you have in your almonds?

Types of Nematodes Percent of Total
Ring 60
Root Knot 66
Root Lesion 17
Other 11

Q15. For each nematode management practice listed below, indicate if you or someone on your farm used the practice within the last almond crop year, postharvest season through harvest (November 1998-October 1999).

If growers were unsure which specific practices were used, they were instructed to mark response as "Don’t Know."

Nematode Management Practices Was the practice used within the last crop year?
Percent
(n=57 to 59)
Don't
know
No Yes
A. Sample for nematodes before planting new orchard to determine need for resistant rootstocks 3 48 48
B. Use nematode resistant rootstock 5 12 83
C. Broadcast fumigation before planting orchard (i.e., methyl bromide, Telone, etc.) 2 78 21
D. Strip fumigation before planting orchard (i.e., methyl bromide, Telone, etc.) 2 83 15
E. Allow at least a one year dry fallow period to benefit orchard replanting 3 66 31
F. Allow at least a one year noncrop fallow period to benefit orchard replanting (i.e., brome grass, oats, clover, vetch, legumes, etc.) 5 75 19
G. Treat orchard with nematicides 3 80 17

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