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(Stellaria media): Pink family; winter annual; seed leaves with prominent
midveins, about 4 times longer than wide, tapering to point at tip; true leaves
broader, opposite, and yellow-green.
(Erodium moschatum): Geranium family; winter annual or biennial; seed
leaves 3- to 4-lobed, center lobe largest; true leaves arranged as opposite
or alternate; leaves and stems bristly and hairy.
(Polygonum arenastrum): Knotweed family; annual or short-lived
perennial, germinates during fall or spring; seed leaves are
long, very narrow, rounded at the tip and light green with a
white cast; true leaves are much broader, emerging from an encircling,
membranous sheath at the leaf base.
(Gnaphalium purpureum): Sunflower family; winter annual,
summer annual, or biennial; seed leaves and first true leaves
covered on both sides with whitish hairs; seed leaves 2 to 3
times longer than wide.
(Lamium amplexicaule): Mint family; winter annual; seedling leaves small,
oblong, with smooth margins and distinct notch at base where blade meets petiole;
first true leaves rounded, coarsely toothed, with visible netted veins.
(Amsinckia spp.): Borage family; winter annual; Y-shaped seed leaves with
tiny blisters and a few fine hairs; early leaves with coarse, sharp hairs, and
4 to 6 times longer than wide.
(Senecio vulgaris): Sunflower family; winter annual, but seedlings can
be present anytime at cool, moist locations; seed leaves narrow, with blunt
narrow tip; first true leaves with shallow teeth; third and fourth leaves more
(Lactuca serriola): Sunflower family; winter annual or biennial; seed
leaves about 2 times longer than wide; first true leaves with rounded margins;
injured tissue bleeds milky white latex.
(Sonchus oleraceus): Sunflower family; summer or winter annual; seed leaves
markedly stalked, almost spoon-shaped, rounded at tip and often have grayish
powdery bloom; injured tissue bleeds milky white latex.
Little mallow (Cheeseweed)
(Malva parviflora): Mallow family; winter annual; seed leaves heart shaped,
sometimes with red tinge; true leaves roundish with wavy, shallow-toothed margins.
(Urtica urens): Nettle family; winter or summer annual;
rounded seed leaves with smooth margin and small notch at tip;
first true leaves with small notch at tip, opposite, stalked,
and distinctly toothed.
(Brassica spp.): Mustard family; winter annual; all mustard seedlings
with broad seed leaves and deep notch at tip; first true leaves bright green
on the upper surface and paler below.
(Sisymbrium irio): Mustard family; winter annual; seedlings narrow with
long stalks; first true leaf oval, margins smooth or with a few weak teeth; subsequent
few leaves similar but with shallow-toothed margins; young plants have deeply
(Capsella bursa-pastoris): Mustard family; winter annual; seed leaves
pale green with tiny granules on surface; first true leaves with smooth margins;
fourth and later leaves may be indented; true leaves covered with star-shaped
(Raphanus raphanistrum): Mustard family; winter annual; seed leaves broad
with deep notch at tip; first true leaves irregularly lobed and sometimes with
separate lobes at leaf base; seedlings similar to mustards in genus Brassica,
but duller green and rougher textured.