Cotton

Summer Annual Weed Seedlings You May See: Crop Emergence to Seedling Growth

Each name links to more information on identification and biology. See the weed photo gallery for more weeds.

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Summer Annuals
Seedling of common lambsquarters, Chenopodium album.
Lambsquarters
Identification tip: Seed leaves are narrow, with nearly parallel sides. The seed leaves and early true leaves are dull bluish-green above and often purple below.
Black nightshade seedling.
Nightshade
Identification tip: Seed leaves of black nightshade are elongate-oval and pointed; the first true leaves are spade-shaped with smooth edges. Lower surfaces are often purple.
Young barnyardgrass plant.
Barnyardgrass
Identification tip: The first blade opens parallel to the ground and is linear. Leaves have no auricle or ligule and are rolled in the bud. Collar is green and smooth, and sheaths are somewhat compressed and tinted maroon toward the base. Stems of young barnyardgrass plants often grow outward along the ground before turning upward.
Chinese thornapple
Identification tip: Cotyledons are lance-shaped and 8 to 10 times as long as they are wide, and taper gently to a point at the end. They are a gray-green in color and are covered with soft downy hair. The stem is purplish-black in color below the seedling leaves. The first two leaves are egg-shaped, while subsequent leaves are broadly oval, angular to triangular in shape, and have a wavy, scalloped margin.
Junglerice, Echinochloa colona.
Junglerice
Identification tip: Seedling leaves are grayish or dull green. It is closely related to barnyardgrass and looks similar except for the distinctive purple bands on leaves. These bands may be present even on seedlings. There are no auricles or ligules in the collar region.
Seedling of annual morningglory, Ipomoea sp.
Morningglories
Identification tip: Morningglories, often called annual morningglories, have heart-shaped, first true leaves with deep lobes at the base. Hypocotyls are maroon at the base and green toward the apex. Seedling leaves are deeply notched.
Redroot pigweed seedlings.
Pigweeds are annual plants that germinate from seeds from late winter through summer.
Identification tip: Seedlings of all common pigweeds are similar. Seed leaves are long and narrow and are often red underneath. Prostrate pigweed forms dense mats. Leaves have distinctive light-colored edges.
Groundcherry seedling.
Groundcherries
Identification tip: Cotyledons are yellow-green to gray-green. First leaves are oval to triangular, have smooth or slightly wavy margins, and give off a strong odor when crushed.
 
Perennials
Young yellow nutsedge plant.
Nutsedge, yellow or purple
Identification tip: Nutsedges grow mainly from tubers or "nutlets" formed on rhizomes, mostly in the upper foot of soil. Leaves are V-shaped in cross section and arranged in sets of three at the base. Stems are triangular in cross section.

Statewide IPM Program, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California
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