Grape

Year-Round IPM Program for Wine and Raisin Grapes

(Reviewed 7/15, updated 7/15)

These practices are recommended for a monitoring-based IPM program that reduces environmental quality problems related to pesticide use. Track your progress through the year using this form.

Each time a pesticide application is considered, review the Pesticide Application Checklist at the bottom of this form for information on how to minimize environmental quality problems. This program covers the major pests of wine and raisin grapes. Details on carrying out each practice, information on additional pests, and additional copies of this form are available from the UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Grape.

This year-round program applies only to wine and raisin grapes. For table grapes, see the TABLE GRAPE YEAR-ROUND IPM PROGRAM.

Delayed-dormancy

What should you be doing at this time?
On a warm day, monitor vines and spurs for:
  • Mealybugs
  • Ants associated with mealybugs and European fruit lecanium scale
  • Orange overwintering spider mites
  • Cutworm

Keep records (example monitoring form PDF). Treat if needed according to the Pest Management Guidelines.

In coastal areas, check orange tortrix pheromone traps that were put up during the dormant period. Keep records (example monitoring form PDF).
Just before budbreak, , deploy omnivorous leafroller pheromone traps. Check traps twice weekly until a biofix date is established; thereafter, check traps weekly. Keep records (example monitoring form PDF).
Monitor for sharpshooters:
  • Glassy-winged sharpshooter

In coastal regions near riparian and landscape areas:

  • Blue-green sharpshooter

Change traps weekly. Keep records (example monitoring form PDF).

Vineyard floor management before bud break:
  • Control weeds with mowing, cultivation, or herbicides
  • Mow tall cover crop
Other pests or pest damage you may see.
  • Rodents
  • Branch and twig borer
  • Click beetles
  • Bud beetles
  • Dead spurs from trunk diseases

Budbreak

What should you be doing at this time?
On a warm day, monitor vines and spurs for:
  • Pseudoccus and vine mealybugs
  • Ants associated with mealybugs and European fruit lecanium scale
  • Orange overwintering spider mites
  • Cutworm
  • Thrips

Keep records (example monitoring form PDF). Treat if needed according to the Pest Management Guidelines.

Check pheromone traps for:
  • Omnivorous leafroller
  • Orange tortrix in coastal areas

Keep records (example monitoring form PDF).

Monitor leaf wetness. Track powdery mildew ascospore release and mildew risk index.

Treat if needed according to the Pest Management Guidelines.

Consider treating for phomopsis cane and leaf spot if rain continues after budbreak.
Remove vines that have spring symptoms of Pierce's disease.

Monitor for sharpshooters:

Check sticky traps for sharpshooters:
  • Glassy-winged sharpshooter

In coastal regions near riparian and landscape areas check for:

  • Blue-green sharpshooter

Change traps weekly. Keep records (example monitoring form PDF).

Rapid shoot growth

What should you be doing at this time?
Look for thrips if cold weather persists.
Look for spider mites and their natural enemies weekly on emerging leaves. Map areas of concern for bloom monitoring.
Monitor leafhoppers weekly starting a month after budbreak or whenever first nymphs appear. Keep records (example monitoring form PDF).
Continue checking pheromone traps for:
  • Omnivorous leafroller
  • Orange tortrix in coastal areas

Keep records (example monitoring form PDF).

In southern San Joaquin Valley, deploy vine mealybug pheromone traps around April 1 and check every two weeks.
  • If males are caught or honeydew, sooty mold, or ants are found, look for nymph/female infestations on surrounding vines.
  • Keep records (example monitoring form PDF).
  • Treat if needed according to the Pest Management Guidelines.
Monitor caterpillars if they have been a problem in the past:
  • Western grapeleaf skeletonizer
  • Grape leaffolder
  • Orange tortrix (in coastal vineyards)
  • Omnivorous leafroller

Map areas of concern for bloom monitoring.

If European fruit lecanium scale has been a problem in the past, monitor female development on old wood.
Manage grey and Argentine ants if mealybugs and scale are a problem.
Monitor for sharpshooters:
  • Glassy-winged sharpshooter

In coastal regions near riparian and landscape areas check for:

  • Blue-green sharpshooter

Change traps weekly. Keep records (example monitoring form PDF).

Monitor for flagging. If you see a flag, distinguish between Botrytis shoot blight and branch and twig borer.
Monitor leaf wetness. Track powdery mildew ascospore release and mildew risk index. Treat if needed according to the Pest Management Guidelines.
Survey weeds to plan a weed management strategy.
  • Control weeds that escaped a dormant season treatment, using postemergence herbicides or cultivation. Record which weeds escaped for future herbicide treatment decisions.
Other pests or pest damage you may see.
  • Eutypa dieback
  • Phomopsis cane and leaf spot

Bloom to veraison

What should you be doing at this time?
Monitor leafhoppers and spider mites weekly. Keep records (example monitoring form PDF). Treat if needed according to the Pest Management Guidelines.
Monitor for Botrytis and powdery mildew by inspecting leaves and shoots.
If European fruit lecanium scale has been a problem in the past, monitor for egg hatch to time treatment.
Check pheromone traps for:
  • Omnivorous leafroller
  • Orange tortrix (in coastal areas)

Keep records (example monitoring form PDF).

In areas other than southern San Joaquin valley, put up vine mealybug pheromone traps. In all areas, check traps every two weeks.
  • If males are caught or honeydew, sooty mold, or ants are found, look for sessile nymph/female infestations on surrounding vines.
  • Keep records (example monitoring form PDF).
  • Treat if needed according to the Pest Management Guidelines.
Monitor Pseudococcus mealybugs by looking for honeydew, sooty mold, and ant activity.
  • Keep records (example monitoring form PDF).
  • If you see crawlers, treat if needed according to the Pest Management Guidelines.
To reduce possible summer rot, Botrytis, and leafhoppers, remove basal leaves or basal lateral shoots beginning around berry set.
  • Time leaf pull before first-generation grape leafhoppers become adults.
  • Treat for Botrytis prior to rain, if leaves are not removed.
Monitor caterpillars if they have been a problem in the past:
  • Omnivorous leafroller
  • Orange tortrix
  • Grape leaffolder
  • Western grapeleaf skeletonizer

Keep records (example monitoring form PDF).

Monitor for sharpshooters:
  • Glassy-winged sharpshooter

In coastal regions near riparian and landscape areas check for:

  • Blue-green sharpshooter

Change sticky traps weekly. Keep records (example monitoring form PDF).

Extra care must be taken when applying systemic herbicides, such as glyphosate near or after veraison.
Other pests or pest damage you may see.
  • Grasshopper
  • Whitefly

Veraison

What should you be doing at this time?
Monitor leafhoppers and spider mites weekly. Keep records (example monitoring form PDF). Treat if needed according to the Pest Management Guidelines.
Check pheromone traps for:
  • Omnivorous leafroller
  • Orange tortrix in coastal areas

Keep records (example monitoring form PDF).

Check vine mealybug pheromone traps.
  • If males are found, or if honeydew, sooty mold, or ant activity is found, look for sessile nymph/female infestations on surrounding vines.
  • Educate field crew to flag cluster infestations for treatment.

Treat if needed according to the Pest Management Guidelines.

Monitor grape and obscure mealybugs. Keep records (example monitoring form PDF). If you see crawlers, treat if needed according to the Pest Management Guidelines.
Monitor glassy-winged sharpshooter. Check traps weekly. Keep records (example monitoring form PDF).
Look for vine symptoms of Pierce's disease. Or for viruslike symptoms of early fall color and/or poor fruit maturity.
If rain occurs shortly after veraison, monitor for Botrytis.
Monitor caterpillars if they have been a problem in the past:
  • Omnivorous leafroller
  • Orange tortrix
  • Grape leaffolder
  • Western grapeleaf skeletonizer

Keep records (example monitoring form PDF).

Inspect roots of weakened vines for galls or phylloxera.
If necessary, manage birds with netting or scare devices as fruit ripens.
Other pests or pest damage you may see.
  • Whitefly
  • European fruit lecanium scale
  • Grasshoppers/katydids
  • Esca

Harvest

What should you be doing at this time?
Be aware that high populations of adult leafhoppers may interfere with hand harvesting.
Monitor for grape, obscure, and vine mealybugs.
  • Look for cluster infestations and mark on map.
  • Educate harvest crew to flag vine mealybug cluster infestations for treatment.
  • Treat vine mealybug if needed according to Pest Management Guidelines.
If you have vine mealybug, steam sanitize equipment before moving to an uninfested area of the vineyard.
For Pierce’s disease flag vines with symptoms for removal. Also for virus symptoms. Mark vines for spring monitoring/removal depending on incidence.
If necessary, continue managing birds with netting or scare devices.
Treat for Botrytis prior to any anticipated rain.
Sample soil and roots for nematodes; look at roots for galls and phylloxera.
Monitor for glassy-winged sharpshooter. Check traps weekly and keep records (example monitoring form PDF).

Postharvest

What should you be doing at this time?
If necessary, treat for vine mealybug immediately after harvest according to the Pest Management Guidelines.
To reduce risk of transferring vine mealybug, do not place winery pomace in the vineyard; compost pomace or cover piles securely with clear plastic.
Look for symptoms of Pierce’s disease on vines and flag for removal. Also for virus-infected vines.
Look for European fruit lecanium scales on leaves; treat according to the Pest Management Guidelines.
If you desire a cover crop, seed after harvest. Cover should be planted when regular irrigation is used or rain is expected. If early rain is followed by a dry period, germinated seeds may die without further irrigation.
Record weeds present in the vineyard. Determine if herbicide applications are warranted. Contact herbicides may be more desirable at this time. Extra care must be taken when using systemic herbicides (glyphosate). Drift may result in damage to new foliage developing in spring.
Carry out sanitation activities and vine surgery for trunk diseases well before the first rain event:

Dormancy

What should you be doing at this time?

Carry out preventative practices for trunk diseases:

  • Use delayed pruning or double pruning in February or later.
  • Use applications of pruning-wound protectants after pruning and before rain in November through January.
In coastal areas, set out orange tortrix pheromone traps by December.
  • Check traps twice weekly until a biofix date is established; thereafter, check traps weekly.
  • Keep records (example monitoring form PDF).
If present, treat for Phomopsis cane and leaf spot before rainfall.
Sample for nematodes in January or February.
Carry out dormant-season sanitation activities.
  • Destroy prunings of older infested wood to reduce pest sources.
  • Remove dried grape clusters on vines and disc weeds and clusters where orange tortrix or omnivorous leafroller is a problem.
  • In vineyards with a history of branch and twig borers, examine old pruning scars and dead parts of vines for brown frass and wood dust.
  • If you have vine mealybug, steam sanitize equipment before moving to an uninfested area of the vineyard.
Survey weeds to plan a weed management strategy. If herbicides are used.
  • Use the late-winter survey form (PDF) to record your observations and make pre- and postemergence herbicide selection decisions.
  • Remove leaves and debris under the vine before applying herbicides.
  • Do not make preemergence herbicide applications if heavy rains are expected soon after application. However, applications should be made when a rain event of 0.25-0.50 inches is expected within 2-3 weeks.
  • If possible, make preemergence herbicide application after dormant activities, such as pruning, are completed to reduce soil movement.

Pesticide application checklist

When planning for possible pesticide applications in an IPM program, consult the Pest Management Guidelines, and review and complete this checklist to consider practices that minimize environmental and efficacy problems.

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