Pistachio

Monitor for pests or their damage: budbreak, bloom, and fruit development

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Leaffooted plant bug
Leaffooted bug adult.

Leaffooted plant bug adult

Identification tip: Adults are relatively large insects, about 1 inch long, and brown with a narrow white band across the back (band is less distinct in L. occidentalis).
Small leaffooted bug nymph, Leptoglossus clypealis.

Leaffooted plant bug nymph

Identification tip: Nymphs look similar to assassin bug nymphs. The two can be distinguished under a hand lens by looking at the proboscis (beak). When retracted, the assassin bug's proboscis does not extend much past the front legs; the leaffooted plant bug proboscis is longer, narrower, and extends all the way under the body to the hind legs.
Hatched eggs of the leaffooted bug, Leptoglossus phyllopus.

Leaffooted plant bug eggs

Identification tip: Females deposit strands of about 10 to 15 bronze to dark brown, barrel-shaped eggs.

Hollow stem damage caused by rapid growth disorder.

Leaffooted plant bug fruit damage

Identification tip: Leaffooted plant bugs (and stink bugs) cause nuts to darken. Note: Cut open darkened nuts to confirm bug damage: a white, netted appearance in the shell tissue.

Small plant bugs
Adult plant bug, Calocoris norvegicus.

Calcoris bug adult

Identification tip: The adult is about 1/4 inch long and green. Its wings have a reddish brown tint and are black where they overlap.

Adult buckeye bug.

California buckeye bug adult

Identification tip: The adult is about 1/3 inch long, straw-colored, and slightly hunched. Nymphs are greenish with brown markings on the back.

Adult lygus bug, Lygus hesperus.

Lygus bug adult

Identification tip: The adult is about 1/4 inch long, ranges from brownish to green, and has a yellowish, triangular-shaped area on the back between the wings. The nymph resembles the adult, but is uniformly pale green with red-tipped antennae.

Adult Phytocoris sp. bug.

Phytocoris adult

Identification tip: The adult is about 1/4 inch long and predominantly gray with flecks of black and white; it has long antennae and legs and moves rapidly when disturbed. The nymph is also gray with white bands on the legs and antennae.

Adult plant bug, Psallus vaccinicola.

Psallus bug adult

Identification tip: The adult is about 1/8 inch long and brownish red. Note: this is the least common of the plant bugs.

 
Stink bugs
Adult redshouldered stink bug, Thyanta pallidovirens (=Thyanta accerra).

Red shouldered stink bug adult

Identification tip: The adult is somewhat triangular, about 1/3 inch long, and predominantly green with a narrow red band across the shoulder; sometimes the band is absent. A brown-colored phase is usually found in overwintering bugs.

Adult Psix tunetanus, egg parasite of redshouldered stink bug.

Red shouldered stink bug eggs

Identification tip: The barrel-shaped white eggs are laid in clusters.

Adult green soldier bug, Acrosternum hilare.

Green soldier bug adult

Identification tip: Adults are bright green with the entire lateral margin lined in yellow or orange.

Egg cluster of the green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare.

Green soldier bug eggs

Identification tip: The barrel-shaped, pale yellow eggs are laid in clusters.

Photo not available

Green plant bug adult

Identification tip: The adult is dull to bright green and slightly larger than the red shouldered stink bug.

 
Before shell hardening: epicarp lesion damage
Brown pistachio fruit caused by stink bug feeding.

Leaffooted plant bug, stink bug, or small plant bug damage

Identification tip: When nuts are still small, feeding by true bugs punctures through the outer wall of the nut, resulting in darkened areas of the hull (epicarp lesions).

Inside a soft-shelled pistachio fruit with true bug feeding damage, the epicarp lesion looks like a white netting.

Leaffooted plant bug, stink bug, or small plant bug damage

Identification tip: Inside a soft-shelled pistachio fruit damaged by true bugs, the epicarp lesion looks like white netting.

After shell hardening: kernel damage
Internal necrosis caused by leaffooted bugs or stink bugs feeding after shell hardening.

Leaffooted plant bug or stink bug damage

Identification tip: Inside the nut, the nutmeat is darkened, often develops a sunken necrotic area, and has an off flavor. Note: Small plant bugs do not cause damage after shell hardening.

 
Abiotic disorder
Crop load adjustment is characterized by panicles with filled and non-filled nuts.

Crop load adjustment

Identification tip: Crop load adjustment is characterized by panicles containing filled and non-filled nuts. It is often mistaken for bug damage.

 

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Statewide IPM Program, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California
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