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Summer Annual Weeds—Planting to First Red Fruit

On this page
  • Black nightshade
  • Hairy nightshade
  • Barnyardgrass
  • Common lambsquarters
  • Common purslane
  • Dodder
  • Little mallow
  • Prostrate pigweed
  • Redroot pigweed
  • Tumble pigweed
  • Velvetleaf

Use the photos below to identify weeds in the field. Names link to more information on identification and biology.

Click on photos to enlarge

				nightshade seedling.
Black nightshade
(Solanum nigrum): Nightshade family; summer annual; seed leaves oval and pointed; first true leaves spade shaped with smooth edges; lower surfaces often purple; petioles stems and leaves with some hairs.

				nightshade seedling.
Hairy nightshade
(Solanum sarrachoides): Nightshade family; summer annual; seed leaves narrow, small, and lanced shaped with very short soft hairs along edges; first true leaves with wavy edges and prominent veins.

Seedling of barnyardgrass, 
				Echinochloa crus-galli.
(Echinochloa crus-galli): Grass family; summer annual; first leaf dull gray-green; stem flattened, purplish; no ligule.
				of common lambsquarters, Chenopodium album.
Common lambsquarters
(Chenopodium album): Goosefoot family; summer annual; seed leaves are narrow, with nearly parallel sides; seed leaves and early true leaves dull blue-green above and often purple below.
Seedling of common 
					purslane, Portulaca oleracea.
Common purslane
(Portulaca oleracea): Purslane family; summer annual; seed leaves oblong, somewhat club shaped, succulent, maroon on lower surface, and green or maroon on upper surface; young leaves smooth, succulent, oblong, green on upper surface, maroonish underneath, and broadest around leaf tip, with short petioles.
Dodder seedling
(Cuscuta spp.): Dodder family; summer annual; leafless or with small scalelike triangular leaves about 1/16-inch in length; stems slender, twining or threadlike; vary in color from pale green to yellow or bright orange.
Little mallow, Malva 
				parviflora, seedling.
Little mallow (cheeseweed)
(Malva parviflora): Mallow family; winter annual; seed leaves heart shaped, sometimes with red tinge; true leaves roundish with wavy, shallow-toothed margins.
Seedling of 
				prostrate pigweed, Amaranthus blitoides, at the two-leaf stage.
Prostrate pigweed
(Amaranthus blitoides): Pigweed family; summer annual; seed leaves narrow, pointed, 6 to 8 times longer than wide, with magenta undersides; first true leaves broader, with shiny upper surface and usually magenta-tinged undersides; edges somewhat rough.
				pigweed seedlings.
Redroot pigweed
(Amaranthus retroflexus): Pigweed family; summer annual; seed leaves long and narrow with red undersides; first true leaves with notched tips and much broader than seed leaves.
				of tumble pigweed, Amaranthus albus.
Tumble pigweed
(Amaranthus albus): Pigweed family; summer annual; seed leaves 3 to 5 times longer than wide, bright green on surface, magenta on underside; first true leaves spatulate, dark green with wavy margins, red color underneath; midrib with notched tip and bristle at end.
Seed leaves of velvetleaf 
(Abutilon theophrasti): Mallow family; summer annual; seed leaves covered with fine, soft hairs; seedlings with one round seed leaf, the other sometimes slightly heart shaped; first true leaves thin and dull, light green, with prominent veins on underside.

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