Water excess or deficiency
Improper irrigation is probably the most common cause of
plant damage. Inadequate water amount causes foliage
to wilt, discolor, and drop prematurely. Overwatering
is a more common problem than underwatering. Overwatering
problems occur primarily because water is applied too frequently
rather than too much being applied during a single irrigation.
Overwatering is especially damaging when drainage is poor. Excess moisture kills
roots. As roots die, foliage discolors and dies. An
inappropriate amount or frequency of irrigation predisposes
plants to attack by mites and certain insects. Most pathogenic
bacteria and fungi require moisture to infect plants and
cause damage; good water management is critical to effective
Plant in well-drained soil and at the proper depth. Monitor plants and environmental conditions to determine irrigation need and frequency. Avoid overwatering by irrigating less frequently. Consider switching from overhead irrigation to drip irrigation to minimize water and also decrease humidity and foliar diseases.
| Browning of kalanchoe caused by drought