Family Betulaceae (Birch family)
Hornbeams are somewhat slow-growing deciduous trees. Foliage is dark green with rough-edged leaves that hang on the tree late into the season. Fruit forms in drooping clusters.
Optimum conditions for growth
Hornbeams are good shade trees and often planted as street trees. Depending on species, they can do well in full sun, partial shade, or full shade. They require regular amounts of water. Mature trees rarely need to be pruned.