How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines

Citrus

When to Monitor Pests and Natural Enemies

(Reviewed 9/08, updated 9/08)

In this Guideline:


Approximate monitoring times are for citrus growing in California's Central Valley. Actual times vary according to location, weather, history of pest problems, and crop cultivar and development stage.

CROP DEVELOPMENT PERIOD JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
prebloom X X X X X X                                    
bloom             X                                  
petal fall               X X X                            
fruit development                     X X X X X X X X            
fall                                     X X X X X X
LOCATION PEST TIME OF YEAR
Central Valley South Coast

DISEASES

JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
+ + Armillaria root rot mushrooms1 X X                                     X X X X
+ + brown rot, Septoria spot X X X X X X X X                         X X X X
+ + dry rot X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
+ + Phytophthora gummosis X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
+ + Phytophthora root rot X X X X X X         X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
+ + stubborn disease                     X X X X X X X X            
+ + Tristeza             X X X X                 X X X X X X
  INVERTEBRATES  
+ + ants2     X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X          
+ + bean thrips3                             X X X X X X X X    
+ black scale       X X X X X         X X X X X X X X        
+ broad mite                         X X X X X X X X        
+ + brown garden snail X X X X X X X X X X                            
+ brown soft scale                         X X X X X X X X        
+ + caterpillars X X X X X X X X X X X X                        
+ + California red scale         X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X        
+ citricola scale             X X X X         X X X X            
+ + citrus peelminer           X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
+ + citrus leafminer                     X X X X X X X X X X X X    
+ citrus red mite     X X X X X X X X X X                        
+ + citrus thrips               X X X X X                        
+ + cottony cushion scale         X X X X X X X X X X                    
+ + earwigs         X X X X X X X X                        
+ + glassy-winged sharpshooter X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X         X X X X
+ grasshoppers             X X X X X X X X                    
+ greenhouse thrips           X X X X X X X X X                    
+ + katydids         X X X X X X X X                        
+ mealybugs                       X X X X X X              
+ + potato leafhopper                                 X X X X X X X X
+ Texas citrus mite                                     X X X X X X
+ twospotted mite     X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X        
+ whiteflies                         X X X X X X X          
+ Yuma spider mite                         X X X X X X            
+ + NEMATODES       X X X X X X X X                          
+ + VERTEBRATES X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X        
+ + WEEDS         X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X    
                                                     
NATURAL ENEMIES
Aphytis melinus, Comperiella bifasciata red scale parasitism                         X X X X X X X X        
Euseius tularensis and other predatory mites4         X X X X X X X X                        
decollate snail X X X X X X X X                         X X X X
Metaphycus spp. soft scale parasitism                     X X X X X X X X X X        
sixspotted thrips             X X X X                            
Stethorus spider mite destroyer beetle                           X X X X X X X X      
vedalia beetle         X X X X X X X X X X                    
 KEY:
Monitor routinely, commonly a pest
Routine monitoring probably warranted only in special circumstances, such as in orchards that have a history of this problem.
1 Look for Armillaria root rot disease throughout the year; short-lived Armillaria mushrooms are apparent only after fall/winter rains.
2 When using sweet liquid ant baits, begin monitoring early (about February along the coast, somewhat later in the Central Valley) before any Homopteran honeydew becomes abundant. Competition from abundant honeydew reduces ants attraction to sweet baits.
3 Monitor bean thrips only on navels that may be exported to Australia.
4 In South Coast and southern California growing areas, periodic monitoring for predatory thrips may be warranted through October.

[Precautions]

PUBLICATION

[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Citrus
UC ANR Publication 3441

General Pesticide Information

  • E. E. Grafton-Cardwell, Entomology, UC Riverside and Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier
  • J. G. Morse, Entomology, UC Riverside
  • N. V. O'Connell, UC Cooperative Extension, Tulare County
  • P. A. Phillips (emeritus), UC IPM Program, UC Cooperative Extension, Ventura County
  • C. E. Kallsen, UC Cooperative Extension, Kern County
  • D. R. Haviland, UC Cooperative Extension, Kern County

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