How to Manage Pests
UC Pest Management Guidelines
Floriculture and Ornamental Nurseries
Disease Control Outlines
In this Guideline:
|Disease (causal agent)
||Survival of pathogen and effect of environment
||Comments on control
|Bacterial soft rot
|Wilting and dying of fans
accompanied by a soft, wet, foul‑smelling rot of rhizome. Fans separate easily from rotted rhizome or topple over.
||In infected tissue. Favored by
warm, wet weather, but rot may continue when conditions are dry. More serious when rhizomes are buried when planted.
||Bacteria enter through wounds, so
prevent injuries to plant. Remove infected plants, cut away rotted tissues,
and allow cut surfaces to thoroughly dry before replanting. Plant high or on ridges so that the top of the rhizome is not covered.
(Mycosphaerella macrospora, Didymellina
macrospora, conidial state; Heterosporium
|Circular to elongated spots 0.125
to 0.25 inch in diameter and up to 1 inch in length. At first, yellowish
flecks appear. Spots later turn light brown and have a distinct red border.
If severely infected, leaves of some cultivars die back. Dark green spores may be found in spots.
||On living and dead leaves. Favored by wet weather. Fungus also infects bulbous iris and other iris species.
||Collect and burn or bury dead
leaves. Where practical, cut off infected parts of leaves. Protect foliage
during wet weather with chlorothalonil, myclobutanil, mancozeb, or copper fungicides. Addition of a wetting agent may be necessary.
|Reddish brown, powdery pustules on
leaves. Infected areas frequently surrounded by yellow tissues. Cultivars differ greatly in susceptibility to rust.
||On living iris leaves. Spores are airborne. Favored by atmospheric moisture (rain, dew, overhead irrigation).
||Irrigate so that the water does
not remain on leaves longer than a few hours. Chlorothalonil, myclobutanil,
and mancozeb used to control leaf spot will also help control rust. more info *
|Rhizomes and leaf bases become
rotted. The fungus is visible as a white, cottony growth on the surface and in the soil, and as small, brown resting structures (sclerotia).
||In soil as sclerotia. Favored by high temperatures and wet soil.
||Attacks many other plants. Avoid
planting in infested soils. Fumigate soil before planting. To prevent spread,
drench infested areas with PCNB or mix granular form with planting medium before planting.
|Central leaves, beginning at leaf
tips, wither and die back. Affected leaves may turn reddish brown. Rhizome
remains firm. Cortical tissues of roots are rotted, leaving only central
water‑conducting tissues and tubelike outer tissues. Plants can recover, but some may die.
||Favored by moist soil at 60°F.
||No sure method of control
available. Thorough cleaning and drying before replanting sometimes is
effective. Dip in 0.5% sodium hypochlorite after cleaning. Sometimes replanting with no treatment gives uninfected plants.
|Virus or viruslike disease
||Host range and natural spread
||Comments on control
(Iris virus 1)
|Light and dark green mottling and
yellow stippling of foliage. Mottling and stippling are especially prominent
on young leaves. Mosaic is most severe on bulbous iris and some rhizomatous
species. Iris germanica and its hybrids are only slightly stunted and sometimes exhibit no symptoms.
||Iris family (Iridaceae).
Transmitted by aphids. Oncocylus iris and their hybrids can be severely
damaged. Serious on Tagridias.
||Rogue infected plants. Control aphids.
irises are also susceptible to root knot nematode** (Meloidogyne hapla). Rhizome rot caused by Sclerotinia convoluta and bacterial leaf blight caused by Xanthomonas tardicrescens, do not occur or are rare in California.
|* For additional information, see section on Key Diseases.
|** For additional information, see section on Nematodes.
UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Floriculture and Ornamental Nurseries
UC ANR Publication 3392
S. T. Koike, UC Cooperative Extension Monterey County
C. A. Wilen, UC IPM Program, UC Cooperative Extension San Diego County
Acknowledgment for contributions to Diseases:
R. D. Raabe, (emeritus) Environmental Science, Policy, and Management (ESPM), UC Berkeley
A. H. McCain, (emeritus) Environmental Science, Policy, and Management (ESPM), UC Berkeley
M. E. Grebus, Plant Pathology, UC Riverside
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