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How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines


Damage from tissue-feeding larvae appears wrinkled and spotted.

Apple

Leafminers

Scientific name: Phyllonorycter spp.

(Reviewed 8/06, updated 3/09)

In this Guideline:


DESCRIPTION OF THE PEST

Adults are small, golden brown moths with white bands or spots that give them a silvery appearance when they fly in sunlight. In spring eggs are laid in young leaves during the period from the tight cluster bloom stage through petal fall. Larvae develop within the leaf tissue. The first three instars feed on sap within the leaves and are called sap-feeders. Sap-feeders have a white, flat, legless body with a brown, wedge-shaped head. They form snakelike mines in the leaf that are visible only on the lower surface of leaves. Fourth and fifth stage larvae are known as tissue-feeders because feeding is concentrated more on leaf tissue than on sap. Tissue feeders have both legs and prolegs and a round head. These older larvae tie the sides of the leaf together with silk to form tents.

Leafminers overwinter within mines in leaves on the orchard floor.

DAMAGE

Leafminer damage is restricted to foliage. In a heavy infestation, over 60% of the leaf tissue can be destroyed. Larvae feed on cells between upper and lower epidermal layers of the leaf, leaving only the thin epidermal layers. The upper side of the leaf takes on a light, spotted appearance. Infestations greater than an average of 5 to 10 mines per leaf may cause premature defoliation. Even if trees are not defoliated, leaf function is impaired, and fruit may fail to size or color.

MANAGEMENT

Low levels of leafminer populations are present in most orchards every year; populations are usually kept at low levels by several species of parasites. Leafminers only become pests when their natural enemies are disrupted by the use of broad-spectrum insecticides for codling moth control.

Biological Control
Parasitic wasps such as Pnigalio flavipes and Sympiesis stigmata are very important in controlling tentiform leafminers. One of the common leafminer parasites lays its eggs in the leaf mines when the leafminers have reached the tissue-feeding stage or fourth instar. After hatching, parasitic larvae attach themselves to the outside of leafminer larvae. The parasite grows rapidly and consumes the leafminer by its fifth instar. It then pupates within the leaf mine about the same time the leafminer would have. The parasite resembles the leafminer pupa in size and color, but it has a larger head and eyes, and it is flat and naked in the leafmine, whereas leafminer pupae are inside a silk cocoon. Although adult parasites are very small, they are easy to spot if populations are abundant because they fly in groups that hover near infested trees.

Organically Acceptable Methods
Biological control and sprays of the Entrust formulation of spinosad are the primary means of controlling leafminers in an organically certified crop.

Monitoring and Treatment Decisions
To determine treatment needs, monitor both the number of sap-feeding mines and parasitization levels of the tissue-feeding stage. First generation larvae normally do not require treatment in California. It is only necessary to monitor parasitism levels of this generation in April. Collect 50 mines with tissue-feeding larvae and examine the larvae for parasites. Sample again in May as soon as sap-feeding mines appear. Randomly collect four leaves from 25 trees. Use the parasitization rate from the first generation sample in conjunction with the number of sap-feeding mines in the current generation to make a treatment decision. Treat if leaves average more than five mines per leaf, or if two or more mines per leaf were present and less than 10% of the first generation was parasitized.

If more than 10% of the first generation was parasitized, delay treatment and reevaluate the level of parasites as soon as the current generation reaches the tissue-feeding stage. At this time, examine leafminer larvae in 50 mines for the presence of parasites.

To determine if treatment is necessary for the third generation, sample sap-feeding larvae as soon as they appear in July. Collect four leaves from 25 trees. Treat if the leaves are averaging more than five mines per leaf or if parasitization was less than 30% when parasite levels were reevaluated in the previous sample. Generally, treatment is not recommended for fourth generation larvae unless parasite levels are low or sap-feeding mines exceed an average of five per leaf.

Leafminer pheromone traps are available and can be used to monitor flights of this pest. Although no correlation has been developed between number of moths trapped and the occurrence of leaf mines, the traps can help pinpoint the start of the different generations.

Common name Amount to use** R.E.I.+ P.H.I.+
(trade name) (conc.) (dilute) (hours) (days)

  Calculate impact of pesticide on air quality
When choosing a pesticide, consider information relating to the impact on natural enemies and honey bees and environmental impact.
 
SPRING
A. ABAMECTIN*
  (Agri-Mek) 0.15EC 10 fl oz 2.5 fl oz 12 28
  MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 6
  COMMENTS: Use with an adjuvant. A narrow-spectrum preventive material that is best used in orchards that have a history of problems with leafminers. Apply at same time as first codling moth treatment.
   
B. PYRIPROXYFEN      
  (Esteem) 0.86EC Label rates 12 45
  (Seize) 35WP Label rates 12 45
  MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 7C
  COMMENTS: Apply a treatment when traps indicate the moth flight is peaking. Do not exceed 2 applications/growing season.
         
C. SPINOSAD
  (Entrust)# 2–3 oz 0.5–0.75 oz 4 7
  (Success) 4–10 fl oz 1.3–3.3 fl oz 4 7
  MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 5
  COMMENTS: A narrow-spectrum material that is effective against mild populations. Use with emulsified crop oil or a methylated crop oil and organosilicone combination.
         
SECOND AND THIRD GENERATION
A. SPINOSAD
  (Entrust)# 2–3 oz 0.5–0.75 oz 4 7
  (Success) 4–10 fl oz 1.3–3.3 fl oz 4 7
  MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 5
  COMMENTS: Apply at the very beginning of the second or third generation. A narrow-spectrum material that is effective against mild populations. Use with emulsified crop oil or a methylated crop oil and organosilicone combination.
         
B. PYRIPROXYFEN
  (Seize) 35WP Label rates 12 45
  (Esteem) 0.86EC Label rates 12 45
  MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 7C
  COMMENTS: Apply a treatment when traps indicate the moth flight is peaking. Do not exceed 2 applications/growing season.
         
C. NEEM OIL#      
  (Trilogy) 1% 4 0
  MODE OF ACTION: Unknown. A botanical insecticide.
 
D. OXAMYL*
  (Vydate) L 0.5 pt 48 14
  MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 1A
  COMMENTS: Apply at least 30 days after bloom or thinning may occur.
   
** For dilute application, rate is per 100 gal water to be applied in 300-500 gal water/acre, according to label; for concentrate applications, use 80-100 gal water/acre or lower if the label allows.
+ Restricted entry interval (R.E.I.) is the number of hours (unless otherwise noted) from treatment until the treated area can be safely entered without protective clothing. Preharvest interval (P.H.I.) is the number of days from treatment to harvest. In some cases the REI exceeds the PHI. The longer of two intervals is the minimum time that must elapse before harvest.
* Permit required from county agricultural commissioner for purchase or use.
Not recommended or not on label.
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode of action Group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). For additional information, see their Web site at http://www.irac-online.org/.

[Precautions]

PUBLICATION

[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Apple
UC ANR Publication 3432
Insects and Mites
J. L. Caprile, UC Cooperative Extension, Contra Costa County
L. R. Wunderlich, UC Cooperative Extension, El Dorado County
P. M. Vossen, UC Cooperative Extension, Sonoma and Marin counties
W. W. Coates, UC Cooperative Extension, San Benito County
H. L. Andris, UC Cooperative Extension, Fresno County
L. G. Varela, UC IPM Program, Sonoma County
W. J. Bentley, UC IPM Program, Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier
Acknowledgment for contributions to Insects and Mites:
C. Pickel, UC IPM Program, Sutter and Yuba counties

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