How to Manage Pests
UC Pest Management Guidelines
Weeds can pose a serious problem to lettuce production, especially during the seedling stage when dense weed infestations reduce lettuce seedling vigor and uniformity, and make thinning difficult and costly. Weeds also harbor insects and diseases, further reducing lettuce yield and quality. Following thinning and cultivation, a second flush of weed growth may occur; if present at harvest, these weeds will interfere with harvest operations and may set seed that will infest subsequent crops.
Most lettuce is direct seeded and is not very competitive with weeds. Weed competition can reduce lettuce growth quickly. Lettuce is sometimes transplanted into weed-free beds. Transplanted seedlings growth rapidly and are more competitive with newly emerged weed seedlings than direct-seeded lettuce. Later in the growing season, weeds compete with lettuce for space in the row; heavy infestations can cause misshapen, small lettuce heads.
Accurate identification of weeds is essential for choosing effective control measures. Monitor fields before planting and use this information to develop an integrated weed management program that efficiently utilizes suitable cultural and chemical control measures. Keep records of the weed species that occur in each field during the period of the year when lettuce will be grown. Not only are these records valuable in planning successful weed management strategies, but they help track the occurrence of hard-to-control weeds. Avoid fields that have high populations of annual weeds such as sowthistle, little mallow, common groundsel, shepherd's-purse, and prickly lettuce. These weeds are difficult to control because they have life cycles similar to lettuce. Also, avoid fields with difficult to control perennial weeds, such as field bindweed and nutsedges, particularly for spring- or summer-planted lettuce.
Crop rotation can help prevent the buildup of high populations of weeds that are specific to the cropping system that is used. For example, broccoli or celery can be rotated with lettuce so that weeds in the same family as lettuce, such as sowthistle, can be controlled to reduce the levels of sowthistle seed in the soil.
Manage weeds in previous crops or cover crops to avoid increasing weed seed in the soil by cultivating weeds before they set seed (which can occur in as little as 4 to 6 weeks after they emerge). After each crop is harvested, clean cultivate the field or plant a vigorous green manure crop to avoid weed infestations. In areas with hot summers, soil solarization can reduce populations of weed seed in the soil, as well as provide partial control of root knot nematode and soilborne fungal pathogens.
Before planting the lettuce crop, preirrigate and cultivate to germinate and destroy weed seedlings. If this is done close to planting time, weeds that germinate and are killed will be those that would have infested the lettuce crop. Have beds near final shape before preirrigation so that they can be prepared for planting with shallow cultivation. Cultivate very shallowly after preirrigation to avoid bringing up ungerminated weed seed from deeper soil layers. Cultivating implements that cut horizontally through the soil, such as harrows or lilliston cultivators, work better than discs, which cultivate vertically and miss many weeds.
Herbicides. During the fallow period, oxyfluorfen (GoalTender) can provide both preemergent and postemergent control of winter weeds. Paraquat (Gramoxone), pelargonic acid (Scythe), glyphosate (Roundup), and carfentrazone (Shark) can provide fallow bed weed control.
Metam sodium is available as a soil fumigant to control soilborne diseases and nematodes, but it can also be used to control weeds, although results are not always consistent. Be sure the soil is well cultivated and moist before its application.
Also available are paraquat (Gramoxone Inteon), pelargonic acid (Scythe), and glyphosate (Roundup) to control emerged weeds before planting. Glyphosate as a preplant treatment can be particularly helpful in controlling perennial weeds.
The preplant herbicide benefin (Balan) is mechanically incorporated into the top 2 to 3 inches of the lettuce bed. Because benefin remains in the soil after harvest, do not plant benefin-sensitive crops such as corn, sudangrass, sugarbeets, spinach, and sorghum, following a lettuce crop where benefin was used. Depth of incorporation is important to the performance of this herbicide. If it is incorporated too deeply it will dilute the herbicide, resulting in poor performance. Mixing it too shallowly may reduce lettuce tolerance. Power driven incorporator, bed shaper units have given satisfactory results.
Soil tilth with minimum clods will provide best results for preplant incorporated herbicides. There are many types of soil incorporators. The ones with L-shaped teeth usually provide better mixing than those with straight teeth. For shallow incorporation, the straight tooth is effective. Ground speed of 2 to 3 miles per hour is recommended for mixing; excessive speed may reduce the herbicide-soil mixing process.
Avoid applying preplant incorporated herbicides in wet soils because a mechanical soil pan may develop that interferes with seedling taproots, growth, and may also cause the herbicide to be layered, reducing crop selectivity. Poor herbicide performance has also resulted when treated soil has been moved into the furrows, or concentrated in the wrong area of the bed.
Seeding can be done immediately following treatment with any preplant herbicide. Irrigate within 2 to 3 days after planting to minimize volatility loss from the soil.
As an alternative to a preplant incorporated application of an herbicide, a preemergent herbicide can be applied immediately after seeding. This allows for combining seeding and herbicide application in one operation, with a sprinkler irrigation soon after application. With lettuce herbicides a sprinkler irrigation or rainfall of 0.5 to 1 inch of water is considered adequate for herbicide movement into the zone of weed seed germination.
One of the preemergent herbicides available for use in lettuce is pronamide (Kerb), which controls a broad spectrum of weeds, including weeds in the mustard family. However, it will not control weeds in the composite family (e.g., annual sowthistle and prickly lettuce). Excessive sprinkler irrigation (more than 2 inches) will leach pronamide too deeply in the soil to be effective for weed control. For this reason pronamide results are often disappointing on early season lettuce crops (August to early October seedings) in the low desert where higher amounts of water are needed to establish a lettuce stand. In some counties pronamide (Kerb) can be also be applied by chemigation as a delayed application 3 to 5 days after the first germination water, which helps reduce leaching and improve efficacy. Do not plant small grains (e.g., wheat) and other pronamide-sensitive crops after a lettuce crop. Refer to the label for plantback times for rotational crops.
One weed control strategy is to apply benefin before planting followed by a treatment of pronamide at planting to greatly extend the spectrum of weed control. However, this combination also severely limits rotational crop alternatives.
Bensulide (Prefar) is also registered for use on lettuce and controls some of the small-seeded annual grasses such as annual bluegrass, barnyardgrass, crabgrass, and some broadleaf weeds such as pigweed and purslane. A combination of bensulide and pronamide as a preemergent application enhances the control of purslane, pigweed, lambsquarters, and nettleleaf goosefoot during warm season plantings. This application eliminates the need for soil incorporation and is effective under sprinkler irrigation systems. Corn, sudangrass, and sorghum are sensitive to soil residues of bensulide so be sure to read the label for specific plantback restrictions.
Plant or transplant lettuce into uniform beds with a precision planting system to obtain a uniform crop that allows accurate machine cultivation next to the lettuce seedline. With precision cultivation, fewer weeds remain and handweeding costs are reduced. Seeded lettuce is hand thinned about 3 to 4 weeks after planting and weeds in the seedlines are removed at this time. Typically, lettuce is cultivated two to three times during the growing season utilizing sweeps, disks, top-knives and side-knives that are mounted on a cultivator. Camera-guided cultivation systems allow for greater precision in cultivation operations.
Buried drip irrigation is also useful for lettuce weed control. Under this system, the lettuce is precision planted and sprinkler irrigated to germinate the crop. After emergence, fields are cultivated and the lettuce is thinned and handweeded within the rows. Subsequent irrigations use the subsurface drip system and the surface soil remains dry, thus preventing the germination of new weeds.
Sethoxydim (Poast) or clethodim (Select Max) can be used for controlling small seedling annual grasses and some perennial grasses. Sethoxydim does not control annual bluegrass, but clethodim does. Effectiveness is reduced when grasses are under moisture stress. Later growth stages of annual grasses are more difficult to control. Clethodim is registered on leaf lettuce only.
UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Lettuce