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How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines


Relative Toxicities of Insecticides and Miticides Used in Apples to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

(Reviewed 8/06, updated 1/11)

In this Guideline:

Common name
(trade name)
Mode of action1 Selectivity2
(affected groups)
Parasites4 Honey
of impact
to natural
abamectin (Agri-Mek EC) 6 moderate (mites, leafminers) H L M/H I7 moderate to predatory mites and affected insects
acetamiprid (Assail) 4A moderate (sucking insects, larvae) 8 9 III moderate
azadirachtin (Neemix) 18B broad (insects, mites) L/M L/M III short
azinphosmethyl (Guthion WP) 1B broad (insects, mites) L/M H H I long
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki 11.B2 narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV short
bifenazate (Acramite) 25 narrow (spider mites) L L L III short
carbaryl (Sevin XLR Plus) 1A broad (insects, mites) L H H I10 long
chlorantraniliprole (Altacor) 28
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban EC) 1B broad (insects, mites) M H H I11 moderate
clofentezine (Apollo) 10A narrow (mites) M L L IV short
Cydia pomenella granulovirus (Cyd-X) narrow (codling moth) none none none IV none
cypermethrin (Ammo) 3 broad (insects, mites) H H H I12 moderate
diazinon (WP, EC) 1B broad (insects, mites) L H H I moderate to long
dimethoate 1B broad (insects, mites) H H H I long
disulfoton (Di-Syston EC) 1B broad (insect, mites) H H H II13
endosulfan (Thionex) 2A broad (insects, mites) L M M II13 moderate
esfenvalerate (Asana) 3 broad (insect, mites) H M H I7 moderate
etoxazole (Zeal) 10C narrow (mites) H9 L IV short
fenbutatin oxide (Vendex) 12B narrow (pest mites) L L L IV short
fenpropathrin (Danitol) 3 broad (insects, mites) H H H I
fenpyroximate (Fujimate) 21 narrow (mites and some insects) H L L IV short
formetanate hydrochloride (Carzol) 1A broad (insects, mites) M/H H H II13 long, unless washed off
hexythiazox (Savey) 10B narrow (mites) M L L IV short to moderate
imidacloprid (Provado) 4A narrow (sucking insects) H II short to moderate
indoxacarb (Avaunt) 22 narrow (caterpillars) L L III moderate
insecticidal soap (M-Pede) broad (insects, mites) M M M IV short
kaolin clay (Surround) broad (insects, mites) M M IV long
lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior) 3 broad (plant bugs, beetles, caterpillars) H H H I14 moderate
methidathion (Supracide) 1B broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate to long
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid) 18A narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV short
neem oil (Trilogy) broad (soft-bodied) insects) L L L III short
oxamyl (Vydate) 1A broad (insects, mites) H H H II13 moderate
permethrin (Ambush, Pounce) 3 broad (insects, mites) L H H I long
petroleum oil broad (exposed insects, mites) L15 L L III short
phosmet (Imidan) 1B broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate to long
pyridaben (Nexter) 21 broad (insect, mites) M/H M III short
pyriproxyfen (Esteem, Seize) 7C narrow (scale, beetles) L H16 L IV long
spinetoram (Delegate) 5 narrow (caterpillars, aphids, scales, leafminers) L/H M17 L/M III moderate18
spinosad (Entrust, Success) 5 narrow (caterpillars, aphids, scales, leafminers) L/H M17 L/M III short to moderate17
spirotetramat (Movento) 23 narrow (aphids) L L L short
sulfur narrow (mites) L/H M/L H IV short
thiacloprid (Calypso) 4A moderate (sucking insects, larvae) 8 III
H = high M = moderate L = low — = no information
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode of action Group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). For additional information, see their Web site at http://www.irac-online.org/.
2 Selectivity: Broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicites are to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis. Where differences have been measured in toxicity of the pesticide resistant strain versus the native strain, these are listed as pesticide-resistant strain/native strain.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows: I-Do not apply to blooming plants; II-Apply only during late evening; III-Apply only during late evening, night, or early morning; and IV-Apply at any time with reasonable safety to bees. For more information, see How to Reduce Bee Poisoning From Pesticides (700 KB, PDF), Pacific Northwest Extension Publication PNW591.
6 Duration: Short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 If rate is 0.025 lb a.i./acre, rating is II.
8 May cause flare-ups of spider mite populations.
9 Does not kill adults but sterilizes females.
10 If rate is 1.5 lb a.i. or less and dilution not greater than 1:19, rating is II.
11 If rate is 0.05 lb a.i./acre or less, rating is III.
12 If rate is 0.025 lb a.i./acre or less, rating is III.
13 If rate is 0.5 lb a.i./acre or less, rating is III.
14 If rate is 0.02 lb a.i./acre, rating is II.
15 Rating depends on rate used.
16 Kills lady beetles.
17 Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory thrips, syrphid fly and lacewing larvae, beetles) when sprayed and up to 5-7 days after, especially for syrphid fly larvae.
18 Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.



[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Apple
UC ANR Publication 3432
General Information
Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M. L. and S. H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

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