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How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines


Onion and Garlic

Relative Toxicities to Insecticides and Miticides Used in Onion and Garlic to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

(Reviewed 1/07, updated 5/10)

In this Guideline:


Common name (trade name) Mode of action1 Selectivity2 (affected groups) Predatory mites3 General predators4 Parasites4 Honey bees5 Duration of impact to natural enemies6
azadirachtin (Neemix) un broad (insects, mites) M L/M L/M III short
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) 1B broad (insects, mites) M H H I7 moderate
cypermethrin (Ammo) 3 broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate
cyromazine (Trigard) 17 narrow (leafminers) L L L III none
diazinon–foliar 1B broad (insects, mites) L H H I moderate to long
diazinon–granular 1B L L L IV short
lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior) 3 broad (plant bugs, beetles, caterpillars) H H H I moderate
methomyl (Lannate) 1A broad (insects , mites) H H H III moderate
methyl parathion (Penncap-M) 1B I
permethrin (Ambush, Pounce) 3 broad (insects, mites) L H H I long
pyrethrin/rotenone (Pyrellin E.C.) 3/— III short
spinetoram (Radiant) 5 narrow (caterpillars, thrips, whiteflies, aphids, scales, leafminers) M M 9 L/M III moderate8
spinosad (Entrust, Success) 5 narrow (thrips, leafminers) M M 9 L/M III short to moderate
zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang) 3 broad (insects, mites) H M M I moderate
H = high    M = moderate     L = low     — = no information
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode of action Group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). For additional information, see their Web site at http://www.irac-online.org/.
2 Selectivity: Broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicites are to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows: I-Do not apply to blooming plants; II-Apply only during late evening; III-Apply only during late evening, night, or early morning; and IV-Apply at any time with reasonable safety to bees. For more information, see How to Reduce Bee Poisoning From Pesticides (700 KB, PDF), Pacific Northwest Extension Publication PNW591.
6 Duration: Short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 If rate is 0.05 lb a.i./acre or less, rating is III.
8 Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.
9 Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory thrips, syrphid fly and lacewing larvae, beetles) when sprayed and up to 5-7 days after, especially for syrphid fly larvae.

[Precautions]

PUBLICATION

[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Onion and Garlic
UC ANR Publication 3453
General Information
Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M.L. and S.H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

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