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How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines


Plum

Relative Toxicities of Insecticides and Miticides Used in Plums to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

(Reviewed 5/06, updated 4/09)

In this Guideline:


Common name (trade name) Mode of action 1 Selectivity 2 (affected groups) Predatory mites 3 General predators 4 Parasites 4 Honey bees 5 Duration of impact to natural enemies 6
azadirachtin (Neemix) 26 broad (insects, mites) M L/M L/M III short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki 11.B2 narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV none
bifenazate (Acramite) 25 narrow (spider mites) L L L IV short
carbaryl (Sevin) 80S 1A broad (insects, mites) L/H H H I long
carbaryl (Sevin) XLR Plus 1A broad (insects, mites) L H L III long
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) 1B broad (insects, mites) M H H I moderate
diazinon–foliar 1B broad (insects, mites) L H H I moderate to long
diflubenzuron (Dimilin) 15 L H L IV
endosulfan (Thiodan) 2A broad (insects, mites) L M M II7 short
esfenvalerate (Asana) 3 broad (insect, mites) H M H I moderate
fenbutatin oxide (Vendex) narrow (pest mites) L L L IV short
hexythiazox (Savey) 10A narrow (mites) L L L IV short
imidacloprid (Provado) 4A narrow (sucking insects) H II short to moderate
lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior) 3 broad (plant bugs, beetles, caterpillars) H H H I moderate
methidathion (Supracide) 1B broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate to long
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid) 18 narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV none
neem oil (Trilogy) broad (soft-bodied insects) L L L III short
petroleum oil broad (exposed insects, mites) L L L III short to none
phosmet (Imidan) 1B broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate to long
pyriproxyfen (Esteem, Seize) 7C narrow (scale, beetles) L H8 L IV long
spinosad (Entrust, Success) 5 caterpillars, thrips, whiteflies, aphids, scales, leafminers L M9 L/M III short
sulfur narrow (mites and citrus thrips) L/H L H IV short
thiamethoxam (Actara) 4A narrow (sucking insects) 10 M I moderate
H = high; M = moderate; L = low; — = no information
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode of action Group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). For additional information, see their Web site at http://www.irac-online.org/.
2 Selectivity: Broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicities are to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis. Where differences have been measured in toxicity of the pesticide-resistant strain versus the native strain, these are listed as pesticide-resistant strain/native strain.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows: I-Do not apply to blooming plants; II-Apply only during late evening; III-Apply only during late evening, night, or early morning; and IV-Apply at any time with reasonable safety to bees. For more information, see How to Reduce Bee Poisoning From Pesticides (700 KB, PDF), Pacific Northwest Extension Publication PNW591.
6 Duration: Short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 If rate is 0.5 lb a.i./acre or less, rating is III.
8 Kills lady beetles.
9 Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory thrips, syrphid fly and lacewing larvae, beetles) when sprayed and up to 5-7 days after, especially for syrphid fly larvae.
10 May cause increase in spider mite populations.

[Precautions]

PUBLICATION

[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Plum
UC ANR Publication 3462
General Information
Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M.L. and S.H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

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