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UC Pest Management Guidelines


Artichoke

Relative Toxicities of Insecticides and Miticides Used in Artichokes to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

(Reviewed 1/07, updated 6/09)

In this Guideline:


Common name (trade name) Mode of action1 Selectivity2 (affected groups) Predatory mites3 General predators4 Parasites4 Honey bees5 Duration of impact to natural enemies6
azadirachtin (Neemix) 18B broad (insects, mites) M L/M L/M III short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. aizawai 11.B1 narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki 11.B2 narrow (caterpillars L L L IV short
bifenthrin (Brigade) 3 broad (insects, mites) H H H I-III 7 long
diflubenzuron (Dimilin) 15 L H L IV
esfenvalerate (Asana) 3 broad (insect, mites) H M H I 8 moderate
imidacloprid (Provado) 4A narrow (sucking insects) H II short to moderate
methidathion (Supracide) 1B broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate to long
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid) 18A narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV short
neem oil (Trilogy) broad (soft-bodied insects) L L L III short
permethrin (Ambush, Pounce) 3 broad (insects, mites) L H H I long
pyrethrin/rotenone (Pyrellin EC) 3/21 broad (insects) H III short
spinosad (Entrust, Success) 5 narrow (caterpillars, whiteflies, aphids, leafminers) L M9 L/M III short to moderate
thiamethoxam (Actara) 4A narrow (sucking insects) 10 M I moderate
H = high
M = moderate
L = low
= no information
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode of action Group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). For additional information, see their Web site at http://www.irac-online.org/.
2 Selectivity: Broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicites are to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows: I-Do not apply to blooming plants; II-Apply only during late evening; III-Apply only during late evening, night, or early morning; and IV-Apply at any time with reasonable safety to bees. For more information, see How to Reduce Bee Poisoning From Pesticides (700 KB, PDF), Pacific Northwest Extension Publication PNW591.
6 Duration: Short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 If rate is less than 0.04 lb a.i./acre, rating is III; if 0.04 lb a.i./acre, rating is II; if 0.06 lb a.i./acre, rating is I.
8 If rate is 0.025 lb a.i./acre, rating is II.
9 Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory thrips, syrphid fly and lacewing larvae, beetles) when sprayed and up to 5-7 days after, especially for syrphid fly larvae.
10 May cause increase in spider mite populations.

[Precautions]

PUBLICATION

[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Artichoke
UC ANR Publication 3434
General Information
Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M. L. and S. H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

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