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How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines


Artichoke

Herbicide Treatment Table

(Reviewed 1/07, updated 6/09)

In this Guideline: More about weeds in artichoke:

Herbicide Amount/Acre R.E.I.+ P.H.I.+
(trade name)   (hours) (days)

  Calculate impact of pesticide on air quality
When choosing an herbicide, consider information relating to environmental impact. Not all registered pesticides are listed. Always read label of product being used.
 
BEFORE STAND ESTABLISHMENT
A. GLYPHOSATE 0.75–1.5 lb a.i. 4 see label
  (Roundup)
  WSSA MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 9
  COMMENTS: A nonselective foliar herbicide used immediately before transplanting. Rate depends on weed species and on size. Annual weeds are best controlled when small; control is poor when weeds exceed the maximum size. Gives good annual weed control and some suppression of perennial weeds. Higher application rates are needed for perennial control.
 
B. PELARGONIC ACID
  (Scythe) 3%–7% spray solution 12 1
  WSSA MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 27
  COMMENTS: A contact, nonselective foliar herbicide without residual activity for use immediately before transplanting. The degree of control is greater when weeds are actively growing, small, and immature; larger weeds are less affected. Provides control of annuals and some suppression of perennials. For best results, target weeds should be thoroughly wetted with spray solution but not to the point of runoff. Use 75–200 gal spray solution/broadcast acre, with higher volume used when weed density is high. A 3-5% solution is sufficient for most annual weeds, while perennial or large annual weeds require a 7% solution.
 
STAND ESTABLISHMENT
A. PRONAMIDE* 1–2 lb a.i. 24 60
  (Kerb) 50W
  WSSA MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 3
  COMMENTS: Apply to weed free soil surface after transplanting or placing crowns. Sprinkler irrigation or rainfall is necessary to activate the herbicide (within 72 hrs for best results).
 
B. SETHOXYDIM 0.3–0.46875 lb a.i. 12 7
  (Poast)
  MODE OF ACTION: A DIM (Group 1)1 herbicide.
  COMMENTS: Apply to small, rapidly growing seedling annual grasses or perennial grasses that are not under stress in 10–20 gal water plus an oil concentrate at the rate of 1 qt/acre. Rates dependent on grass size and species. Perennials often require more than one treatment. Follow label instructions regarding the use of adjuvants.
 
ESTABLISHED PLANTINGS
Before weeds emerge
A. NAPROPAMIDE 4 lb a.i. 12 0
  (Devrinol) 50DF
  WSSA MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 15
  COMMENTS: Use being dropped from the label. Read label carefully to be sure that the crop is listed on the label of the product used. Apply to weed free soil in established beds. If rainfall does not occur, shallow mechanical incorporation or irrigation is necessary to activate the herbicide. Do not apply more than 4 lb a.i./acre/season.
 
B. PRONAMIDE* 1–4 lb a.i. 24 60
  (Kerb) 50W
  WSSA MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 3
  COMMENTS: Apply to weed-free soil surface. Sprinkler irrigation or rainfall is necessary to activate the herbicide (within 72 hrs for best results). Do not make more than 2 applications per season (one to the artichoke row and one to the untreated soil surface between the artichoke rows after the ditching operation is completed). Do not apply more than 4 lb a.i./acre to established artichokes or more than 2 lb a.i./acre to newly transplanted artichokes broadcast application.
 
Herbicides with both preemergent and postemergent activity
A. DIURON 1.6–3.2 lb a.i. 12 0
  (Karmex DF, Direx 4L)
  WSSA MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 7
  COMMENTS: Do not use on first year plantings. Soils should have greater than 2% organic matter. Apply as a band or broadcast treatment to weed free beds or beds with small annual weeds as a directed spray to minimize crop contact. Considered to be a ground water contaminant and requires a use permit within Ground Water Protection Areas.
 
B. OXYFLUORFEN 1–1.5 lb a.i. 24 5
  (Goal, GoalTender) 2XL
  WSSA MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 14
  COMMENTS: Use as a directed spray to avoid contact with artichoke leaves. Allow at least 60 days after transplanting or harvest prior to spray. Do not apply more than 1.5 lb a.i./acre/season. Do not apply before Oct 1 or after Feb 15 (Feb 1 in the Coachella Valley).
 
C. PARAQUAT* 0.6–1 lb a.i. 24 1
  (Gramoxone Inteon)
  WSSA MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 22
  COMMENTS: Apply as directed spray to the plant beds or winter ditches. Applications can be continued through bud production. Apply in 20–100 gal water/acre. Do not exceed 3 lb a.i./acre/year or 3 applications/year. Can be mixed with oxyfluorfen to enhance efficacy. When pesticides are used in tank mixes, observe all directions for use for use on crops, rates, dilution ratio, precautions, and limitations that appear on the labels of all products used in the mixture.
 
After weeds emerge
A. SETHOXYDIM 0.3–0.46875 lb a.i. 12 7
  (Poast)
  WSSA MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 1
  COMMENTS: Apply October 1 to February 15 after completion of the ditching operation to annual grass or perennial grass seedlings that are not under stress. Apply in 10–20 gal water plus an oil concentrate at the rate of 1 qt/acre. Rates dependent on grass size and species. Perennials often require more than one treatment. Follow label instructions regarding the use of adjuvants.
 
+ Restricted entry interval (R.E.I.) is the number of hours (unless otherwise noted) from treatment until the treated area can be safely entered without protective clothing. Preharvest interval (P.H.I.) is the number of days from treatment to harvest. In some cases the REI exceeds the PHI. The longer of two intervals is the minimum time that must elapse before harvest.
* Permit required from county agricultural commissioner for purchase or use
1 Group numbers are assigned by the Weed Science Society of America (WSSA) according to different modes of action. Although weeds may exhibit multiple resistance across many groups, mode of action numbers are useful in planning mixtures or rotations of herbicides with different modes of action. For more information, see http://www.hracglobal.com.

[Precautions]

PUBLICATION

[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Artichoke
UC ANR Publication 3434
Weeds
R. F. Smith, UC Cooperative Extension, Monterey County
S. A. Fennimore, Vegetable Crops/Weed Science, UC Davis
Acknowledgment for contributions to Weeds:
D. W. Cudney, Botany, UC Riverside
W. L. Schrader, UC Cooperative Extension, San Diego County
B. J. Mullen, UC Cooperative Extension, San Joaquin County

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