Artichoke

Agricultural pest management


Herbicide Treatment Table

(Reviewed 1/07, updated 6/09, pesticides updated 5/15)

In this Guideline: More about weeds in artichoke:

Herbicide Amount per acre R.E.I.‡ P.H.I.‡
(Example trade name)   (hours) (days)

UPDATED: 5/15
  Calculate impact of pesticide on air quality
 
The following are listed alphabetically. When choosing an herbicide, consider information relating to environmental impact, resistance management, the pesticide's properties, and application timing. Not all registered pesticides are listed. Always read the label of the product being used.
 
BEFORE STAND ESTABLISHMENT
 
A. PENDIMETHALIN 3–8.2 lb a.i.    
  (Prowl H2O, Satellite HydroCap) 3–8.2 lb pints 24 See comments
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 3
  COMMENTS: For annual artichokes, the application must be no less than 1 to 2 days prior to transplanting. For rates up to 3 pints, PHI is 60 days; between 3.1–8.2 pints, the PHI is 200 days. Do not apply more than 8.2 pints/acre per season. Do not feed forage or graze livestock in treated fields.
 
B. FLUMIOXAZIN 2.04 oz a.i.    
  (Chateau SW) 4 oz 12 0
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 14
  COMMENTS: For annual artichokes, flumioxazin may be applied no less than 2 days prior to transplanting. For perennial artichokes, flumioxazin may be applied after planting crown pieces or "cut back" of mature plants.
 
C. GLYPHOSATE 0.75–1.5 lb a.i.    
  (Roundup) 0.55–1.09 qt 4 See label
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 9
  COMMENTS: A nonselective foliar herbicide used immediately before transplanting. Rate depends on weed species and on size. Annual weeds are best controlled when small; control is poor when weeds exceed the maximum size. Gives good annual weed control and some suppression of perennial weeds. Higher application rates are needed for perennial control.
 
D. PELARGONIC ACID 0.13–0.31 lb a.i.    
  (Scythe) 3%–7% spray solution 12 1
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 27
  COMMENTS: A contact, nonselective foliar herbicide without residual activity for use immediately before transplanting. The degree of control is greater when weeds are actively growing, small, and immature; larger weeds are less affected. Provides control of annuals and some suppression of perennials. For best results, target weeds should be thoroughly wetted with spray solution but not to the point of runoff. Use 75–200 gal spray solution per broadcast acre, with higher volume used when weed density is high. A 3-5% solution is sufficient for most annual weeds, while perennial or large annual weeds require a 7% solution.
 
STAND ESTABLISHMENT
 
A. FLUMIOXAZIN 3.06 oz a.i.
  (Chateau SW) 6 oz 12 0
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 14
  COMMENTS: Apply to annual artichokes prior to transplanting and to perennial artichokes prior to cracking for preemergence weed control.
 
B. PRONAMIDE* 1–2 lb a.i.
  (Kerb 50W) 2–4 lbs 24 60
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 3
  COMMENTS: Apply to weed free soil surface after transplanting or placing crowns. Sprinkler irrigation or rainfall is necessary to activate the herbicide (within 72 hrs for best results).
 
C. SETHOXYDIM 0.3–0.46875 lb a.i.
  (Poast) 0.53–2.5 pt 12 7
  WSSA MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 1
  COMMENTS: Apply to small, rapidly growing seedling annual grasses or perennial grasses that are not under stress in 10–20 gal water plus an oil concentrate at the rate of 1 qt/acre. Rates dependent on grass size and species. Perennials often require more than one treatment. Follow label instructions regarding the use of adjuvants.
 
ESTABLISHED PLANTINGS
 
Before weeds emerge
 
A. FLUMIOXAZIN 3.06 oz a.i. 12 0
  (Chateau) 6 oz    
  WSSA MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 14
  COMMENTS: In perennial artichokes, apply in a single application after cutback for mature plants.
 
B. PRONAMIDE* 1–4 lb a.i. 24 60
  (Kerb 50W) 2–8 lb    
  WSSA MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 3
  COMMENTS: Apply to weed-free soil surface. Sprinkler irrigation or rainfall is necessary to activate the herbicide (within 72 hrs for best results). Do not make more than 2 applications per season (one to the artichoke row and one to the untreated soil surface between the artichoke rows after the ditching operation is completed). Do not apply more than 4 lb a.i./acre to established artichokes or more than 2 lb a.i./acre to newly transplanted artichokes broadcast application.
 
Herbicides with both preemergent and postemergent activity
 
A. DIURON* 1.6–3.2 lb a.i.
  (Karmex DF) 2–4 lb 12 0
  (Direx 4L) 1.6–3.2 qt 12 0
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 7
  COMMENTS: Do not use on first year plantings. Soils should have greater than 2% organic matter. Apply as a band or broadcast treatment to weed free beds or beds with small annual weeds as a directed spray to minimize crop contact. Considered to be a ground water contaminant and requires a use permit within Ground Water Protection Areas.
 
B. OXYFLUORFEN 1–1.5 lb a.i.
  (Goal 2XL) 4–6 pt 24 5
  (GoalTender) 2–3 pt 24 5
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 14
  COMMENTS: Use as a directed spray to avoid contact with artichoke leaves. Allow at least 60 days after transplanting or harvest prior to spray. Do not apply more than 1.5 lb a.i./acre per season. Do not apply before Oct 1 or after Feb 15 (Feb 1 in the Coachella Valley).
 
C. PARAQUAT* 0.6–1 lb a.i.
  (Gramoxone SL) 2.5–4 pt 24 1
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 22
  COMMENTS: Apply as directed spray to the plant beds or winter ditches. Applications can be continued through bud production. Apply in 20–100 gal water/acre. Do not exceed 2 lb a.i./acre per year or 3 applications per year. Can be mixed with oxyfluorfen to enhance efficacy. When pesticides are used in tank mixes, observe all directions for use for use on crops, rates, dilution ratio, precautions, and limitations that appear on the labels of all products used in the mixture.
 
After weeds emerge
 
A. CLETHODIM 0.07–0.12 lb a.i. (annual grass)    
0.09–0.12 lb a.i. (perennial grass)
  (Select Max) 9–16 fl oz (annual grass) 24 5
12–16 fl oz (perennial grass)
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 1
 
B. SETHOXYDIM 0.3–0.46875 lb a.i. 12 7
  (Poast) 0.53–2.5 pt    
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 1
  COMMENTS: Apply October 1 to February 15 after completion of the ditching operation to annual grass or perennial grass seedlings that are not under stress. Apply in 10–20 gal water plus an oil concentrate at the rate of 1 qt/acre. Rates dependent on grass size and species. Perennials often require more than one treatment. Follow label instructions regarding the use of adjuvants.
 
C. HALOSULFURON-METHYL 0.75–1.5 oz a.i.    
  (Sandea) 1–2 oz 12 5
  WSSA MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 2
  COMMENTS: Apply Sandea uniformly with ground equipment in a minimum of 15 gallons of water per acre. Apply as a broadcast application to the ground on either side of the row and winter ditches while avoiding crop foliage. Row Middle: Apply SANDEA between rows of perennial artichokes for the control of listed broadleaf weeds. Applications should be made when oxalis is in full bloom. Avoid contact of the herbicide with the planted crop. Application of Sandea may cause significant, temporary stunting and delay maturity of artichokes if sprayed directly. For best results, use a nonionic surfactant with applications. See label for rotational crop information.
 
Restricted entry interval (R.E.I.) is the number of hours (unless otherwise noted) from treatment until the treated area can be safely entered without protective clothing. Preharvest interval (P.H.I.) is the number of days from treatment to harvest. In some cases the REI exceeds the PHI. The longer of two intervals is the minimum time that must elapse before harvest.
* Permit required from county agricultural commissioner for purchase or use
1 Group numbers are assigned by the Weed Science Society of America (WSSA) according to different modes of action. Although weeds may exhibit multiple resistance across many groups, mode of action numbers are useful in planning mixtures or rotations of herbicides with different modes of action. For more information, see http://www.hracglobal.com.

[Precautions]

PUBLICATION

[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Artichoke
UC ANR Publication 3434

Weeds

R. F. Smith, UC Cooperative Extension, Monterey County
S. A. Fennimore, Vegetable Crops/Weed Science, UC Davis
M. A. Bari, Artichoke Research Association, Salinas

Acknowledgment for contributions to Weeds:
D. W. Cudney, Botany, UC Riverside
W. L. Schrader, UC Cooperative Extension, San Diego County
B. J. Mullen, UC Cooperative Extension, San Joaquin County

Top of page


Statewide IPM Program, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California
All contents copyright © 2015 The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.

For noncommercial purposes only, any Web site may link directly to this page. FOR ALL OTHER USES or more information, read Legal Notices. Unfortunately, we cannot provide individual solutions to specific pest problems. See our Home page, or in the U.S., contact your local Cooperative Extension office for assistance.

Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California

Accessibility   /PMG/r6700411.html revised: June 2, 2015. Contact webmaster.