How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines

Asparagus

Garden Symphylan

Scientific name: Scutigerella immaculate

(Reviewed 6/09, updated 2/12)

In this Guideline:


DESCRIPTION OF PEST

Garden symphylans are slender, white arthropods, closely related to insects, about 0.33 inch (8 mm long), with 10 to 12 prolegs and distinct antennae. These fast-moving arthropods live in soil and move up and down in the soil profile with the moisture. They run when exposed to light. They occur mainly in soil with high organic matter and can cause considerable damage in asparagus plantings.

DAMAGE

Garden symphylans cause injury by chewing large numbers of small, round holes in storage roots, crowns, and on the belowground portion of the spears. They also predispose the asparagus plants to additional damage from disease organisms (Fusarium, Phytophthora, etc.) that invade the wounds they create. The insects are a particular problem during periods of extended wet weather in northern California production areas, primarily the Delta, or on water-saturated soils. A good indication that these insects are present is circular areas in the field or along edges of the field in which there is little or no asparagus or weed growth.

The practice of mounding soil against the spears to produce white asparagus increases the damage potential of this pest. Since the demise of the white asparagus industry in California, crop loss has been reduced.

MANAGEMENT

Monitoring with bait traps and examining harvested spears can help detect the presence of symphylans, although no treatment thresholds have been developed.  Cultivation and flooding may provide control. 

Cultural Control

Flooding has been used to control symphylans in some situations but has been unsuccessful in others. Flooding requires at least 2 to 3 weeks, is more likely to be effective in late spring or summer (when fields are fallow) and is probably most effective where there is a high water table. Symphylans may be found more than 3 feet below the soil surface and flooding to this level in many soils is difficult. Even in the best circumstances, flooding will only reduce populations; they can be expected to increase when conditions are again favorable.

Cultivation to dry out the surface soil of the beds has reduced injury by driving the insects deeper into the soil.

Organically Acceptable Methods

Flooding fields before planting or in winter and cultivation are both organically acceptable control strategies.

Monitoring and Treatment Decisions

Confirm symphylan presence by digging a few feet below the surface with a shovel and examining moist soil. Research from other areas of the country and in other California crops such as lettuce and tomato indicate that symphylans can be detected with bait traps, but their success may depend on location, weather, and soil conditions. Symphylans are most easily detected in moist warm soil. Baits placed on dry soil or on very hot or cold soils are unlikely to attract symphylans even when present, as symphylans migrate deeper in dry or hot soils and are less active in cold soil. Scrape off the top layer of dry soil to expose moist, firm soil. Cut a potato in half longitudinally and scratch the cut surface just before placing it on the soil to ensure that the surface is moist; use half of a potato, not a sliver or a chip. Cover the bait with an opaque pot or cup to block out light and air, and mark the spot with a flag. Symphylans have a spotty (aggregated) distribution pattern so use at least 30 bait traps per field. After 1 to 5 days, examine the cut potato surface and the soil it was resting on for evidence of symphylans.

Treatment thresholds are not well defined for symphylans in asparagus.  If symphylans are present, fumigate or plant the field with a different crop.  Because symphylans are likely to occur in the same areas over many years, these pests are very difficult to manage in permanent crops like asparagus.

Symphylans may be detected in established fields by examining the base of the harvested spear for small punctures. Also, if weak areas appear in fields and weeds are not present in that portion of the field but are doing well in other areas, suspect garden symphylans.

Common name Amount per Acre** R.E.I.‡ P.H.I.‡
(example trade name)   (hours) (days)

  Calculate impact of pesticide on air quality
The following materials are listed in order of usefulness in an IPM program, taking into account efficacy, information related to natural enemies and honey bees, Not all registered pesticides are listed. Always read label of product being used. and environmental impact.
PREPLANT
A. 1,3–DICHLOROPROPENE*
  (Telone II) Label rates 5 days NA
  COMMENTS: Fumigants such as 1,3-dichloropropene are a source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) but are minimally reactive with other air contaminants that form ozone. Fumigate only as a last resort when other management strategies have not been successful or are not available.
 
POSTPLANT
A. CHLORPYRIFOS*
  (Lorsban) 15G 10 lb 24 180
  (Lorsban Advanced) 2 pt 24 1
  MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 1B
  COMMENTS: Lorsban 15G used as a single application in the first year when there is no harvest or in subsequent years as a postharvest treatment. Lorsban Advanced applied at least 2 weeks before harvest; use allowed under a Supplemental Label. Limited to ground application. Avoid drift and tailwater runoff into surface waters.
 
** See label for dilution rates.
Restricted entry interval (R.E.I.) is the number of hours (unless otherwise noted) from treatment until the treated area can be safely entered without protective clothing. Preharvest interval (P.H.I.) is the number of days from treatment to harvest. In some cases the REI exceeds the PHI. The longer of two intervals is the minimum time that must elapse before harvest.
* Permit required from county agricultural commissioner for purchase or use.
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode of action Group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). For additional information, see their Web site at http://www.irac-online.org/.
NA Not applicable.

[Precautions]

PUBLICATION

[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Asparagus
UC ANR Publication 3435

Insects

  • E. T. Natwick, UC Cooperative Extension, Imperial County
Acknowledgment for contributions to Insects:
  • R. J. Mullen, UC Cooperative Extension, San Joaquin County
  • W. E. Chaney, UC Cooperative Extension, Monterey County
  • C. B. Fouche, UC Cooperative Extension, San Joaquin County

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