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UC Pest Management Guidelines


English grain aphid.

Small Grains

English Grain Aphid

Scientific name: Sitobion avenae

(Reviewed 2/07, updated 2/09)

In this Guideline:


DESCRIPTION OF THE PEST    Key to identifying aphids

The English grain aphid is a yellow-green to reddish brown, medium sized aphid with black antennae, cornicles, and leg joints. It usually appears later in the season than the other cereal aphids.

DAMAGE

English grain aphid is found on the leaves and stem of barley and oats, but in wheat it frequently colonizes the heads. It causes little injury except in wheat when present in extremely high numbers, more than 80-100 per head. It is thought that large amounts of honeydew produced by this aphid, particularly when in the head, may clog harvesting equipment; however, this has not been confirmed.

English grain aphid is a vector of BARLEY YELLOW DWARF virus.

MANAGEMENT

Biological Control
English grain aphid is normally suppressed by the common aphid parasites and predators (see APHIDS–GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS).

Monitoring
Be sure to check for presence of this aphid in the heads when monitoring wheat.

Management Decisions
Economic thresholds have not been established.

Common name Amount/Acre R.E.I.+ P.H.I.+
(trade name)   (hours) (days)

  Calculate impact of pesticide on air quality
The following materials are listed in order of usefulness in an IPM program, taking into account efficacy, information relating to natural enemies and honey bees as well as the environmental impact. Not all registered pesticides are listed. Always read label of product being used.
 
A. METHYL PARATHION*
  (Penncap M) 1–2 pt 5 days 15
  MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 1B
  COMMENTS: May be used on wheat, barley, and oats. This product is highly toxic to foraging bees, young hive bees, and brood. Do not apply to any field when bees are present or in the surrounding vicinity. Do not graze within 15 days.
 
B. DIMETHOATE 4EC 0.5–0.75 pt 48 60
  MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 1B
  COMMENTS: For use on wheat and triticale only. Do not make more than 2 applications/year. Do not graze within 14 days. Highly toxic to honey bees if bees are present at treatment time or within a day after.
 
C. MALATHION 8EC 1.25 pt 12 7
  MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 1B
  COMMENTS: May be used on wheat, barley, oats, rye. If alfalfa is in bloom, apply during the night or early in the morning when bees are not foraging in the field.
 
D. METHOMYL*
  (Lannate SP) 0.25–0.5 lb 48 7
  MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 1A
  COMMENTS: Do not graze within 10 days. Do not apply more than 1.8 lb a.i./acre/crop. Highly toxic to honey bees if bees are present at treatment time or within a day after.
 
E. CHLORPYRIFOS*
  (Lorsban) 4E 0.5–1 pt 24 28
  MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 1B
  COMMENTS: For use on wheat only. Do not make more than 2 applications/crop. See label for other restrictions. Highly toxic to honey bees if bees are present at treatment time or within a day after. Avoid drift and tailwater runoff into surface waters.
 
+ Restricted entry interval (R.E.I.) is the number of hours (unless otherwise noted) from treatment until the treated area can be safely entered without protective clothing. Preharvest interval (P.H.I.) is the number of days from treatment to harvest. In some cases the R.E.I. exceeds the P.H.I.; the longer of these two intervals is the minimum time that must elapse before harvest may take place.
* Permit required from county agricultural commissioner for purchase or use.
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode of action Group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). For additional information, see their Web site at http://www.irac-online.org/.

[Precautions]

PUBLICATION

[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Small Grains
UC ANR Publication 3466
Insects and Mites
C. G. Summers, Entomology, UC Davis/Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier
L. D. Godfrey, Entomology, UC Davis
Acknowledgment for contributions to Insects and Mites:
D. Gonzalez, Entomology, UC Riverside

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