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How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines


Spinach

Relative Toxicities of Pesticides Used in Spinach to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

(Reviewed 12/09, updated 12/09)

In this Guideline:


Common name (trade name) Mode of Action1 Selectivity2 (affected groups) Predatory mites3 General predators4 Parasite4 Honey bees5 Duration of impact to natural enemies6
acetamiprid(Assail) 4A moderate (sucking insects, larvae) 7 8 III moderate
azadirachtin (Aza-Direct, Neemix) 18B broad (insects, mites) M L/M L/M III short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. aizawai 11.B1 narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki 11.B2 narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV short
chlorantraniliprole (Coragen) 28 narrow (primarily caterpillars) L L L/M IV short
cyromazine (Trigard) 17 narrow (leafminers) L L L III short
diazinon–foliar 1B broad (insects, mites) L H H I moderate to long
diazinon–granular 1B narrow (soil insects) L L L IV short
imidacloprid (Admire) 4A narrow (sucking insects, beet armyworm, cutworms) L II9
imidacloprid (Provado) 4A narrow (sucking insects) H II short to moderate
insecticidal soap (M-Pede) broad (exposed insects, mites) M M M IV short
methomyl (Lannate) 1A broad (insects, mites) H H H III moderate
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid) 18A narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV short
permethrin (Ambush) 3 broad (insects, mites) L H H I long
pymetrozine (Fulfill) 9B narrow (aphids) L L L III short
spinetoram (Radiant) 5 narrow (caterpillars, aphids, leafminers) L/H M10 L/M III moderate11
spinosad (Entrust, Success) 5 narrow (caterpillars, aphids, leafminers) L M10 L/M III short to moderate
spirotetramat (Movento) 23 narrow (primarily aphids) L L L short
thiodicarb (Larvin) 1A narrow (caterpillars) L L L III
zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang) 3 broad (insects, mites) H M M I moderate
H = high M = moderate L = low — = no information
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode of action Group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). For additional information, see their Web site at http://www.irac-online.org/.
2 Selectivity: broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Toxicities are to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows: I-Do not apply to blooming plants; II-Apply only during late evening; III-Apply only during late evening, night, or early morning; and IV-Apply at any time with reasonable safety to bees. For more information, see How to Reduce Bee Poisoning From Pesticides (700 KB, PDF), Pacific Northwest Extension Publication PNW591.
6 Duration: short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 May cause flare-ups of spider mite populations
8 Does not kill adults but sterilizes females.
9 If rate is 0.1 lb a.i./acre, rating is II.
10 Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory thrips, syrphid fly and lacewing larvae, beetles) when sprayed and up to 5-7 days after, especially for syrphid fly larvae.
11 Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.

[Precautions]

PUBLICATION

[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Spinach
UC ANR Publication 3467
General Information
Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M. L. and S. H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

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