How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines

Asparagus

Relative Toxicities of Insecticides Used in Asparagus to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

(Reviewed 6/09, updated 2/12)

In this Guideline:


Common name (trade name) Mode of action1 Selectivity2(affected groups) Predatory mites3 General predators4 Parasites4 Honey bees5 Duration of impact to natural enemies6
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. aizawai 11.B1 narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV short
carbaryl (Sevin) bait 1A narrow (cutworms, army-worms, etc.) L L L IV short
carbaryl (Sevin) XLR Plus 1A broad (insects) L H H I7 long
chlorantraniliprole (Coragen) 28 narrow (primarily caterpillars) L L L/M IV short
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) 1B broad (insects, mites) M H H I8 moderate
methomyl (Lannate) 1A broad (insects) H H H III moderate
permethrin (Ambush, Pounce) 3 broad (insects) L H H I long
petroleum oils broad (exposed insects) L9 L L III short
pyrethrin (PyGanic) 3 broad (insects) M M III short
pymetrozine (Fulfill) 9B narrow (aphids) L L L III short
spinetoram (Radiant) 5 narrow (caterpillars, thrips, aphids) L/H M10 L/M III moderate11
spinosad (Entrust, Success) 5 narrow (caterpillars, thrips, aphids) L/H M10 L/M III short to moderate10
H = high M = moderate L = low — = no information
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode of action Group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). For additional information, see their Web site at http://www.irac-online.org/.
2 Selectivity: broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicities are to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis. Where differences have been measured in toxicity of the pesticide-resistant strain versus the native strain, these are listed as pesticide-resistant strain/native strain.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows: I-Do not apply to blooming plants; II-Apply only during late evening; III-Apply only during late evening, night, or early morning; and IV-Apply at any time with reasonable safety to bees. For more information, see How to Reduce Bee Poisoning From Pesticides (700 KB, PDF), Pacific Northwest Extension Publication PNW591.
6 Duration: short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 If rate is 1.5 lb a.i. or less and dilution not greater than 1:19, rating is II.
8 If rate is 0.05 lb a.i./acre or less, rating is III.
9 Rating depends on rate used.
10 Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory thrips, syrphid fly and lacewing larvae, beetles) when sprayed and up to 5-7 days after, especially for syrphid fly larvae.
11 Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.

[Precautions]

PUBLICATION

[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Asparagus
UC ANR Publication 3435

General Information

Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M.L. and S.H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control.

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