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Project description

Broccoli residue as a biofumigant for cyst nematode management in cole crops. (01CC014)
Program UC IPM competitive research grants program
Principal
investigators
B.B. Westerdahl, Nematology, UC Davis
E.P. Caswell-Chen, Nematology, UC Davis
Host/habitat Cole Crops; Vegetable Crops
Pest Sugarbeet Cyst Nematode Heterodera schachtii
Discipline Nematology
Review
panel
Cultural Controls
Start year (duration)  2001 (Three Years)
Objectives Determine the efficacy of incorporation of broccoli residue as a management tactic for the sugarbeet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii in cole crops.

Final report Plant-parasitic nematodes are microscopic roundworms with a life cycle consisting of an egg, four juvenile (J) stages, and the sexually mature adult stage. In sugarbeet cyst nematodes (SBCN), the second-stage infective juvenile hatches from the egg, is attracted to host roots by exudates, penetrates a host root, and establishes a permanent feeding site. The nematode feeds, grows to the adult stage, with eggs (up to 600) retained in the female body, and the body hardens after death, protecting the eggs from adverse environmental conditions. Activity, reproduction, and development occur between 8-35 C. Cysts containing eggs persist in soil for many years in the absence of a host. Based on data available in pesticide use reports, approximately 25 percent of the nematicides used in California are for preplant reduction of SBCN in cole crops. Over a 3-year period, we are conducting 7 experiments that will assess the efficacy of broccoli mulch for biofumigation to manage SBCN. We expect the results of this research to reduce pesticide use by defining viable biofumigation using plant biomass that is inherently a part of the crop production system. The data obtained will help us to define biofumigation efficacy relative to yearly temperature fluctuations. To date, four trials have been completed, and two additional trials are in progress. These trials have shown preplant reductions in nematode populations due to biofumigation and increases in yield compared to an untreated control.
Third-year
progress
To date, four trials have been completed, and two additional trials are in progress. These trials have shown preplant reductions in nematode populations due to biofumigation and increases in yield compared to an untreated control.

Second-year
progress
Plant-parasitic nematodes are microscopic roundworms with a life cycle consisting of an egg, four juvenile (J) stages, and the sexually mature adult stage. In sugarbeet cyst nematodes (SBCN), the second-stage infective juvenile hatches from the egg, is attracted to host roots by exudates, penetrates a host root, and establishes a permanent feeding site. The nematode feeds, grows to the adult stage, with eggs (up to 600) retained in the female body, and the body hardens after death, protecting the eggs from adverse environmental conditions. Activity, reproduction, and development occur between 8-35 C. Cysts containing eggs persist in soil for many years in the absence of a host. Based on data available in pesticide use reports, approximately 25 percent of the nematicides used in California are for preplant reduction of SBCN in cole crops. Over a three-year period, we are conducting seven experiments that will assess the efficacy of broccoli mulch for biofumigation to manage SBCN. We expect the results of this research to reduce pesticide use by defining viable biofumigation using plant biomass that is inherently a part of the crop production system. The data obtained will help us to define biofumigation efficacy relative to yearly temperature fluctuations. To date, two trials have been completed, and two additional trials are in progress. These trials have shown preplant reductions in nematode populations due to biofumigation and increases in yield compared to an untreated control.
First-year
progress
Plant-parasitic nematodes are microscopic roundworms with a life cycle consisting of an egg, four juvenile (J) stages, and the sexually mature adult stage. In Heterodera schachtii, the sugarbeet cyst nematode (SBCN), the second-stage infective juvenile hatches from the egg, is attracted to host roots by exudates, penetrates a host root, and establishes a permanent feeding site. The nematode feeds and grows to the adult stage, with eggs (up to 600) retained in the female body which hardens to form a cyst after death, protecting the eggs from adverse environmental conditions. Cysts containing eggs persist in soil for many years in the absence of a host. Nematode activity, reproduction and development occur between 8-35°C. Based on data available in pesticide use reports, approximately 25 percent of the nematicides used in California are for preplant reduction of SBCN in cole crops. Over a 3-year period, we will conduct seven experiments that will assess the efficacy of broccoli mulch in biofumigation to manage (SBCN). We expect the results of this research to reduce pesticide use by defining an alternative, viable biofumigation using plant biomass that is inherently part of the system. The data obtained will help to determine biofumigation efficacy relative to yearly temperature fluctuations. To date, the first trial is in progress and data indicate preplant reductions in nematode populations due to biofumigation.

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